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Comparison of two quantitative proton density mapping methods in multiple sclerosis

  • René-Maxime Gracien
  • Sarah C. Reitz
  • Marlies Wagner
  • Christoph Mayer
  • Steffen Volz
  • Stephanie-Michelle Hof
  • Vinzenz Fleischer
  • Amgad Droby
  • Helmuth Steinmetz
  • Sergiu Groppa
  • Elke Hattingen
  • Johannes C. Klein
  • Ralf Deichmann
Research Article
  • 241 Downloads

Abstract

Objective

Proton density (PD) mapping requires correction for the receive profile (RP), which is frequently performed via bias-field correction. An alternative RP-mapping method utilizes a comparison of uncorrected PD-maps and a value ρ(T1) directly derived from T1-maps via the Fatouros equation. This may be problematic in multiple sclerosis (MS), if respective parameters are only valid for healthy brain tissue. We aimed to investigate whether the alternative method yields correct PD values in MS patients.

Materials/methods

PD mapping was performed on 27 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 27 healthy controls, utilizing both methods, yielding reference PD values (PDref, bias-field method) and PDalt (alternative method).

Results

PDalt-values closely matched PDref, both for patients and controls. In contrast, ρ(T1) differed by up to 3 % from PDref, and the voxel-wise correlation between PDref and ρ(T1) was reduced in a patient subgroup with a higher degree of disability. Still, discrepancies between ρ(T1) and PDref were almost identical across different tissue types, thus translating into a scaling factor, which cancelled out during normalization to 100 % in CSF, yielding a good agreement between PDalt and PDref.

Conclusion

RP correction utilizing the auxiliary parameter ρ(T1) derived via the Fatouros equation provides accurate PD results in MS patients, in spite of discrepancies between ρ(T1) and actual PD values.

Keywords

Quantitative MRI Proton density Fatouros equation Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis 

Abbreviations

EDSS

Expanded disability status scale

GE

Gradient echo

GM

Gray matter

MS

Multiple sclerosis

NAGM

Normal appearing gray matter

NAWM

Normal appearing white matter

PD

Proton density

PVE

Partial volume estimate

qMRI

Quantitative MRI

RF

Radiofrequency

ROI

Region of interest

RP

Receive coil profile

RRMS

Relapsing-remitting MS

WM

White matter

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung [DLR 01GO0203; Brain Imaging Center Frankfurt], the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft [DFG CRC-TR 128; Drs. Zipp and Deichmann], and the LOEWE-Program “Neuronal Coordination Forschungsschwerpunkt Frankfurt” (NeFF) [ZA 233/1-1].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Dr. H. Steinmetz has received speaker’s honoraria from Bayer, Sanofi and Boehringer Ingelheim. Dr. J.C. Klein received speaker honoraria and travel reimbursement from Medtronic, AstraZeneca, Abbott Laboratories and AbbVie. Dr. C. Mayer has received honoraria for speaking/consultation and travel grants from Bayer Healthcare, Biogen Idec, Merck Serono, Genzyme, a Sanofi Company, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Teva Pharma GmbH, and research grants from Novartis Pharmaceuticals.

Funding

This work was supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung [DLR 01GO0203; Brain Imaging Center Frankfurt], the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft [DFG CRC-TR 128; Drs. Zipp and Deichmann], and the LOEWE-Program “Neuronal Coordination Forschungsschwerpunkt Frankfurt” (NeFF) [ZA 233/1-1].

Research involving human participants/informed consent

Written informed consent was given from all individual participants included in the study and the study was approved by the ethics committee of the State Medical Association of Rhineland-Palatine and by the Institutional Review Board. All procedures involving human participants were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.

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Copyright information

© ESMRMB 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • René-Maxime Gracien
    • 1
    • 3
  • Sarah C. Reitz
    • 1
    • 3
  • Marlies Wagner
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christoph Mayer
    • 1
  • Steffen Volz
    • 3
  • Stephanie-Michelle Hof
    • 1
    • 3
  • Vinzenz Fleischer
    • 4
    • 5
  • Amgad Droby
    • 4
    • 5
  • Helmuth Steinmetz
    • 1
  • Sergiu Groppa
    • 4
    • 5
  • Elke Hattingen
    • 2
    • 3
  • Johannes C. Klein
    • 1
    • 3
    • 6
  • Ralf Deichmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyGoethe UniversityFrankfurt/MainGermany
  2. 2.Department of NeuroradiologyGoethe UniversityFrankfurt/MainGermany
  3. 3.Brain Imaging CenterGoethe UniversityFrankfurt/MainGermany
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyJohannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany
  5. 5.Neuroimaging Center (NIC) of the Focus Program Translational Neuroscience (FTN)Johannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany
  6. 6.Nuffield Department of Clinical NeurosciencesUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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