Advertisement

Effect of diffusion-sensitizing gradient timings on the exponential, biexponential and diffusional kurtosis model parameters: in-vivo measurements in the rat thalamus

  • Ludovico Minati
  • Ileana Zucca
  • Gabriella Carcassola
  • Michele Occhipinti
  • Roberto Spreafico
  • Maria Grazia Bruzzone
Research Article

Abstract

Object

To investigate whether spacing (Δ) and duration (δ) of the diffusion-sensitizing gradient pulses differentially affect exponential (D′), biexponential (D slow, D fast and f slow) and diffusional kurtosis (D and K) model parameters.

Methods

Measurements were performed in the rat thalamus for b = 200–3,200 s mm−2, sweeping Δ between 20 and 100 ms at δ = 15 ms, and δ between 15 and 50 ms at Δ = 60 ms. Linear regressions were performed for each model parameter vs. Δ or δ.

Results

Increasing Δ from 20 to 100 ms increases D′ (from 0.64 to 0.70 × 10−3  mm2s−1) and D slow (from 0.26 to 0.33 × 10−3 mm2s−1), reduces K (from 0.57 to 0.53), and has no effects on D fast, f slow or D. Increasing δ from 15 to 50 ms increases D (from 0.80 to 0.88 × 10−3  mm2s−1), and has no effects on the other parameters.

Conclusion

The parameters of the biexponential and diffusional kurtosis models are more sensitive than the exponential model to Δ and δ; however, observed effects are too small to account for the discrepancies found in literature.

Keywords

Diffusion Time Exponential model Biexponential model Diffusional kurtosis model 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Niendorf T, Dijkhuizen RM, Norris DG, van Lookeren Campagne M, Nicolay K (1996) Biexponential diffusion attenuation in various states of brain tissue: implications for diffusion-weighted imaging. Magn Reson Med 36: 847–857CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jensen JH, Helpern JA, Ramani A, Lu H, Kaczynski K (2005) Diffusional kurtosis imaging: the quantification of non-gaussian water diffusion by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Med 53: 1432–1440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Minati L, Aquino D, Rampoldi S, Papa S, Grisoli M, Bruzzone MG, Maccagnano E (2007) Biexponential and diffusional kurtosis imaging, and generalised diffusion-tensor imaging (GDTI) with rank-4 tensors: a study in a group of healthy subjects. Magn Reson Mater Phy 20: 241–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schwarcz A, Bogner P, Meric P, Correze J, Berente Z, Pal J, Gallyas F, Doczi T, Gillet B, Beloeil J (2004) The existence of biexponential signal decay in magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging appears to be independent of compartmentalization. Magn Reson Med 51: 278–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark CA, Le Bihan D (2000) Water diffusion compartmentation and anisotropy at high b values in the human brain. Magn Reson Med 44: 852–859CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maier SE, Bogner P, Bajzik G, Mamata H, Mamata Y, Repa I, Jolesz FA, Mulkern RV (2001) Normal brain and brain tumor: multicomponent apparent diffusion coefficient line scan imaging. Radiology 219: 842–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brugieres P, Thomas P, Maraval A, Hosseini H, Combes C, Chafiq A, Ruel L, Breil S, Peschanski M, Gaston A (2004) Water diffusion compartmentation at high b values in ischemic human brain. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25: 692–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cheung MM, Hui ES, Chan KC, Helpern JA, Qi L, Wu EX (2009) Does diffusion kurtosis imaging lead to better neural tissue characterization? A rodent brain maturation study. Neuroimage 45: 386–392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Falangola MF, Jensen JH, Babb JS, Hu C, Castellanos FX, Di Martino A, Ferris SH, Helpern JA (2008) Age-related non-Gaussian diffusion patterns in the prefrontal brain. J Magn Reson Imaging 28: 1345–1350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ford JC, Hackney DB, Lavi E, Phillips M, Patel U (1998) Dependence of apparent diffusion coefficients on axonal spacing, membrane permeability, and diffusion time in spinal cord white matter. J Magn Reson Imaging 8: 775–782CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee JH, Springer CS Jr (2003) Effects of equilibrium exchange on diffusion-weighted NMR signals: the diffusigraphic “shutter-speed”. Magn Reson Med 49: 450–458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fieremans E, De Deene Y, Delputte S, Ozdemir MS, D’Asseler Y, Vlassenbroeck J, Deblaere K, Achten E, Lemahieu I (2008) Simulation and experimental verification of the diffusion in an anisotropic fiber phantom. J Magn Reson 190: 189–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mitra PP, Halperin BI (1995) Effects of finite gradient-pulse widths in pulsed-field-gradient diffusion measurements. J Magn Reson 113: 94–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Assaf Y, Ben-Bashat D, Chapman J, Peled S, Biton IE, Kafri M, Segev Y, Hendler T, Korczyn AD, Graif M, Cohen Y (2002) High b-value q-space analyzed diffusion-weighted MRI: application to multiple sclerosis. Magn Reson Med 47: 115–122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pilatus U, Shim H, Artemov D, Davis D, van Zijl PC, Glickson JD (1997) Intracellular volume and apparent diffusion constants of perfused cancer cell cultures, as measured by NMR. Magn Reson Med 37: 825–832CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fieremans E, De Deene Y, Delputte S, Ozdemir MS, D’Asseler Y, Vlassenbroeck J, Deblaere K, Achten E, Lemahieu I (2008) Simulation and experimental verification of the diffusion in an anisotropic fiber phantom. J Magn Reson 190: 189–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pfeuffer J, Provencher SW, Gruetter R (1999) Water diffusion in rat brain in vivo as detected at very large b values is multicompartmental. MAGMA 8: 98–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Le Bihan D, Turner R, Douek P (1993) Is water diffusion restricted in human brain white matter? An echo planar NMR imaging study. NeuroReport 4: 887–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Assaf Y, Cohen Y (2000) Assignment of the water slow-diffusing component in the central nervous system using q-space diffusion MRS: implications for fiber tract imaging. Magn Reson Med 43: 191–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meier C, Dreher W, Leibfritz D (2003) Diffusion in compartmental systems. I. A comparison of an analytical model with simulations. Magn Reson Med 50: 500–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Horsfield MA, Lai M, Webb SL, Barker GJ, Tofts PS, Turner R, Rudge P, Miller DH (1996) Apparent diffusion coefficients in benign and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis by nuclear magnetic resonance. Magn Reson Med 36: 393–400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Le Bihan D, Turner R (1992) The capillary network: a link between IVIM and classical perfusion. Magn Reson Med 27: 171–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ESMRMB 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ludovico Minati
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ileana Zucca
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gabriella Carcassola
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michele Occhipinti
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roberto Spreafico
    • 1
  • Maria Grazia Bruzzone
    • 2
  1. 1.Scientific DepartmentFondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta”MilanoItaly
  2. 2.Neuroradiology UnitFondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta”MilanItaly

Personalised recommendations