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Biexponential and diffusional kurtosis imaging, and generalised diffusion-tensor imaging (GDTI) with rank-4 tensors: a study in a group of healthy subjects

  • Ludovico Minati
  • Domenico Aquino
  • Stefano Rampoldi
  • Sergio Papa
  • Marina Grisoli
  • Maria Grazia Bruzzone
  • Elio Maccagnano
Research Article

Abstract

Object

Clinical diffusion imaging is based on two assumptions of limited validity: that the radial projections of the diffusion propagator are Gaussian, and that a single directional diffusivity maximum exists in each voxel. The former can be removed using the biexponential and diffusional kurtosis models, the latter using generalised diffusion-tensor imaging. This study provides normative data for these three models.

Materials and methods

Eighteen healthy subjects were imaged. Maps of the biexponential parameters D fast, D slow and f slow, of D and K from the diffusional kurtosis model, and of diffusivity D-were obtained. Maps of generalised anisotropy (GA) and scaled entropy(SE) were also generated, for second and fourth rank tensors. Normative values were obtained for 26 regions.

Results

In grey versus white matter, D slow and D-were higher and D fast, f slow and K were lower. With respect to maps of D- anatomical contrast was stronger in maps of D slow and K. Elevating tensor rank increased SE, generally more significantly than GA, in: anterior limb of internal capsule, corpus callosum, deep frontal and subcortical white matter, along superior longitudinal fasciculus and cingulum.

Conclusion

The values reported herein can be used for reference in future studies and in clinical settings.

Keywords

Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) Biexponential model Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) Generalised DTI (GDTI) 

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Copyright information

© ESMRMB 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ludovico Minati
    • 1
    • 2
  • Domenico Aquino
    • 2
  • Stefano Rampoldi
    • 3
  • Sergio Papa
    • 3
  • Marina Grisoli
    • 2
  • Maria Grazia Bruzzone
    • 2
  • Elio Maccagnano
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Scientific Direction UnitFondazione Istituto Nazionale Neurologico “Carlo Besta”MilanItaly
  2. 2.Neuroradiology DepartmentFondazione Istituto Nazionale Neurologico “Carlo Besta”MilanItaly
  3. 3.Diagnostic Imaging DepartmentCentro Diagnostico Italiano CDIMilanItaly

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