Advertisement

Characteristics of biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand export from paddy fields during rainfall and non-rainfall periods

  • Dong-Ho Choi
  • Jin-A Beom
  • Min-Hyuk Jeung
  • Woo-Jung Choi
  • Young-Gu Her
  • Kwang-Sik YoonEmail author
Article

Abstract

Rice growing in paddy fields equipped with irrigation and drainage systems is less affected by unfavorable weather patterns such as prolonged dry periods and severe storms, but for the same reason, the fields discharge water to maintain suitable water depths even between rainfall events. Studies have been done to examine the quality of water drained from rice paddy fields during or after rainfall events. However, it is not clear how drainage affects the water quality of downstream waterbodies, especially during non-rainfall periods. We investigated the water quality characteristics of rainfall and non-rainfall rice paddy drainage, which was characterized by biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, hydrological variables including water inflow/outflow rates, depth, BOD, and COD were monitored at a paddy field in Korea from 2008 to 2012. This study then quantified how BOD and COD loadings are controlled by irrigation and drainage management practices. Water quality measurements showed that rainfall events that resulted in rainfall depths greater than 50 mm are responsible for half of the overall BOD and COD loads discharged by rainfall events of the fields. On the other hand, a quarter of the total BOD and COD was attributed to events that provided rainfall depths less than 10 mm. The results suggested that the BOD and COD loads of rainfall events can be reduced by up to 25% if water at paddy fields is carefully managed in small rainfall events. Water samples taken during rainfall events had greater nutrient loads only by 6 kg BOD ha−1 (17 kg BOD ha−1 vs. 11 kg BOD ha−1) and 7 kg COD ha−1 (41 kg COD ha−1 vs. 34 kg COD ha−1) compared to those of the non-rainfall periods in the cropping season. Such a finding indicates the significant impacts of paddy field drainage practices on downstream water quality between rainfall events, particularly when considering a long period of non-rainfall. The monitoring data also showed that the standard unit load of 15.5 kg BOD ha−1 established for rice paddy fields by the Ministry of Environment, the environmental authority of Korea, is substantially different from the actual BOD load, because the non-rainfall BOD loads were not considered in the standard. Thus, this study suggests that non-rainfall BOD loads should be counted and managed for successful implementations of total maximum daily load programs.

Keywords

Rice paddy BOD COD Irrigation Drainage TMDL 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This research was supported by a grant from Environmental Basic Research program funded by Committee for Management of Yeongsan and Seomjin River Basin.

References

  1. Ahn JH, Yun SL, Kim SK (2012) Runoff characteristics of non-point source according to cultivation activity in River District. Korean Soc Environ Eng 34(7):480–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop requirements. FAO irrigation and drainage paper no. 56. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  3. Bouman BAM (2001) Water efficient management strategies in rice production – a mini review. International Rice Research Institute Los Banos PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao X, Wu M, Zhuo L, Chen D, Shao G, Guo X, Wang W, Tang S (2018) Water footprint assessment for crop production based on field measurements: a case study of irrigated paddy rice in East China. Sci Total Environ 610:84–93Google Scholar
  5. Choi DH, Yoon KS, Choi WJ, Yoo SH (2016a) Estimation of pollutant unit load of paddy fields with and without a rainfall factor. Irrig Drain 65(S2):112–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi DH, Jung JW, Yoon KS, Beak WJ, Choi WJ (2016b) Farmer’s water management practice and effective rainfall and runoff ratio of paddy fields. Irrig Drain 65(S2):66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ding Y, Wang W, Song R, Shao Q, Jiao X, Xing W (2017) Modeling spatial and temporal variability of the impact of climate change on rice irrigation water requirements in the middle lower reaches of the Yangtze river, China. Agric Water Manag 193:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Feng YW, Yoshinaga I, Shiratani E, Hitomi Y, Hasebe H (2004) Characteristics and behaviors of nutrients in a paddy field area equipped with a recycling irrigation system. Agric Water Manag 68:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferderica M, Guido S (2018) How water amounts and management options drive irrigation water productivity of rice. a multivariate analysis based on field experiment data. Agric Water Manag 195:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freeman C, Evans CD, Monteith DT, Reynolds B, Fenner N (2001) Export of organic carbon from peat soils. Nature 412(6849):785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gu BW, Park SJ (2016) Effects of fertilization on ponded water and soil quality in organic and conventional paddy. Korean Soc Water Sci Technol 24(5):139–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Holly MA, Larson RA, Cooley ET, Wunderlin AM (2018) Silage storage runoff characterization: annual nutrient loading rate and first flush analysis of bunker silos. Agric Ecosyst Environ 264:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hwang HS (2001) Mass balance analysis and loading estimate of nutrients in paddy fields area. Master’s Thesis, Konkuk UniversityGoogle Scholar
  14. Hwang HS, Kong DS, Shin DS, Jeon JH (2004) Characteristics of nutrient export from paddy rice fields with irrigation practices. J Korean Soc Water Qual 20(6):597–602Google Scholar
  15. Jeon JH, Yoon CG, Hwang HS (2003) Water quality model development for loading estimates from paddy field. Korean J Limnol 36(3):344–355Google Scholar
  16. Jin SH, Jung JW, Yoon KS, Choi WJ, Choi DH, Kang JH, Choi YJ (2010) Probability distribution of BOD EMC from paddy fields. J Environ Sci 19(9):1153–1159Google Scholar
  17. Jung JW, Yoon KS, Choi WJ, Joo SH, Lim SS, Kwak JH, Lee SH, Kim DH, Chang NI (2008) Improvement measures of pollutants unit-loads estimation for paddy fields. J Soc Water Qual 24(3):291–296Google Scholar
  18. Kim HS, Kim JS, Kim YI, Cheong BH (2004) Analysis of the characteristics of nutrients loading and the water purification function in the paddy-fields. Korean Natl Comm Irrig Drain 11(1):36–44Google Scholar
  19. Kim MK, Kim MH, Choi SK, Choi KJ, Hong SC, Jung GB, So KH (2014) Reduction of pollutant load by small pond in a rice paddy applied with pig manure compost. J Korea Org Resour Recycl Assoc 22(4):21–27Google Scholar
  20. Kim KU, Kang MS, Song IH, Song JH, Park JH, Jun SM, Jang JR, Kim JS (2016) Effects of controlled drainage and slow-release fertilizer on nutrient pollutant loads from paddy fields. J Korean Soc Agric Eng 58(1):1–10Google Scholar
  21. Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS) (2017) http://kosis.kr/. Accessed 22 Feb 2017
  22. Lee HW, Choi JH (2009) Temporal analysis of trends in dissolved organic matter in Han River water. Environ Eng Res 14(4):256–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee KB, Park CW, Park KL, Kim JG, Lee DB, Kim JD (2005) Nitrogen balance in paddy soil of control release fertilizer application. J Soil Sci Fertil 38(3):157–163Google Scholar
  24. Lee JB, Lee JY, Li SH, Jang JR, Jang IG, Kim JS (2014) Nutrient balance in the paddy fields watershed with a source of river water. J Korean Soc Agric Eng 56(5):11–19Google Scholar
  25. Ministry of Environment (MOE) (2004) Official testing method with respect to water pollution process. Ministry of Environment Seoul KoreaGoogle Scholar
  26. Ministry of Environment (MOE) (2011) Sewage statistics. Ministry of Environment Seoul KoreaGoogle Scholar
  27. Ministry of Environment (MOE) (2013) Act on conservation of water quality and aquatic ecosystem. Ministry of Environment Seoul KoreaGoogle Scholar
  28. Ministry of Environment (MOE) (2017) White Paper of EnvironmentGoogle Scholar
  29. National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NAIST) (2009) Taxonomic classification of Korea soils. Ministry of Agriculture Seoul KoreaGoogle Scholar
  30. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2009) Rainfall-runoff survey methods. Ministry of Environment Seoul KoreaGoogle Scholar
  31. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2014) Public hearing for unit load of nonpoint source. Ministry of Environment Seoul KoreaGoogle Scholar
  32. Relevant Ministerial Consortium (2012) The 2nd comprehensive plan on nonpoint source management. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Seoul KoreaGoogle Scholar
  33. Siriwat B, Sangam S, MuKand SB, Sutat W, Avisher D (2018) Climate change impacts on irrigation water requirement, crop water productivity and rice yield in the Songkhram river basin, Thailand. J Clean Prod 198:1157–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yoo SH, Choi JY, Jang MW (2006) Estimation of paddy rice crop coefficient for FAO Penman–Monteith and modified Penman method. J Korean Soc Agric Eng 48(1):13–23Google Scholar
  35. Yoo SH, Choi JY, Jang MW (2008) Estimation of design water requirement using FAO Penman–Monteith and optimal probability distribution function in South Korea. Agric Water Manag 95(7):751–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yoon KS, Choi JK, Im SJ (2002) Effect of tillage management of paddy field on runoff and nutrient losses during non-cropping season. Korean Soc Agric Eng 44(7):53–63Google Scholar
  37. Yoon CG, Hwang HS, Jeon JH, Ham JH (2003a) Analysis of nutrients balance during paddy rice cultivation. Korean J Limnol 36(1):66–73Google Scholar
  38. Yoon CG, Ham JH, Jeon JH (2003b) Effects of ponded-water depth and reclaimed wastewater irrigation on paddy rice culture. Paddy Water Environ 1(2):1205–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yoon KS, Cho JY, Choi JK, Son JG (2006) Water management and N, P losses from paddy fields in Southern Korea. J Am Water Resour Assoc (JAWRA) 42(5):1205–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dong-Ho Choi
    • 1
  • Jin-A Beom
    • 2
  • Min-Hyuk Jeung
    • 2
  • Woo-Jung Choi
    • 2
  • Young-Gu Her
    • 3
  • Kwang-Sik Yoon
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Climate Change and Agroecology DivisionNational Academic of Agricultural ScienceWangju-gunRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Rural and Biosystems EngineeringChonnam National UniversityGwangjuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Agricultural and Biological Engineering/Tropical Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural SciencesUniversity of FloridaHomesteadUSA

Personalised recommendations