Failure conditions for stand-alone cold-frame greenhouse under snow loads

  • Junsuk Kang
  • Jeongbae Jeon
  • Seongsoo Yoon
  • Won ChoiEmail author


In South Korea, even snowfalls under the design snow loads are frequently known to cause significant deformations or failures of stand-alone cold-frame greenhouses. However, the possible causes of such events are not reflected in the structural design criteria currently used. To estimate the deformations related to structural failures, this study set up possible scenarios to be able to make the structural failures and examined the reasons through scaled-down experiments and nonlinear structural analyses. Hinge boundary conditions of supports and non-uniform snow loads occurred by the repetitive freeze–thaw cycles of the soils surrounding the supports without concrete foundations, and differences between internal and ambient temperatures, respectively, were considered. Two-dimensional scaled-down models of the greenhouses were constructed based on the similarity law. The experimental results were compared with those from nonlinear structural analyses of linear elastic–plastic models. For fixed boundary conditions at both ends and uniform snow loads, the relative errors of displacements between the experimentally obtained values and the results of the finite element analyses were within 6.10%. The results revealed that structural failures occurred in all cases with hinge boundary conditions for the supports at both ends for both uniform and non-uniform snow loads, but the greatest deformation behavior of the structure was observed with a hinge–hinge boundary condition and non-uniform snow loads where the horizontal displacement was similar to the vertical displacement. The temporary installations of diagonal braces in the greenhouses when heavy snowfalls are forecasted are therefore recommended to reduce the side sway.


Stand-alone cold-frame greenhouse Failure condition Scaled-down experiment Nonlinear structural analysis 3D printer 



This study was supported by the Korean Meteorological Institute, Korea Meteorological Administration (grant number: KMI2018-04310).


  1. 3DITEMS (2015) 3D printing and maker movement. Accessed 13 Oct 2015
  2. Abaqus (2017) SIMULIA user assistance 2017. ABAQUS Inc., WalthamGoogle Scholar
  3. Cho SH (2010) Modal testing of arches for plastic film-covered greenhouses. Earthq Eng Soc Korea 14(2):57–65. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Choi G (2015) Asymmetric changes in intra-seasonal means and extreme events of winter temperature in the Republic of Korea. J Clim Res 10(2):137–151. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Choi W, Jun S (2013) Measurement of structural shrinkages of freeze dried chipping potatoes for crack modeling. Food Sci Biotechnol 22(4):1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gere JM, Timoshenko SP (2004) Mechanics of materials, 6th edn. Cengage Learning, StamfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Hodgson G (2015) Slic3r manual. Accessed 9 June 2015
  8. Hwang KJ, Choi CK (2011) Evaluation of material test for the design of artistic column using glass reinforced plastic. J Korean Assoc Spat Struct 11(4):101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jung SG, Kim WS, Oh SH (2005) Survey on greenhouses damaged by heavy snowfalls in South Korea. Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Yesan CountyGoogle Scholar
  10. Kang JH (2015) Semi-auto leveling. Accessed 9 June 2015
  11. Kim V (2015) Cura manual (in Korean). Accessed 9 June 2015
  12. Kim MG, Nam SW, Seo WM, Yoon YC, Lee SG, Lee HW (2012) Agricultural facility systems engineering. Hyangmoonsa, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee SG (2004) Development of small scale vinyl house model for reduction of damage by wind and snow. Kyungpook National University, DaeguGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee JW (2013) Analysis of safety wind speed and snow depth for single-span plastic greenhouse according to growing crops. Curr Res Agric Life Sci 31(4):280–285. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee K, Sung JH, Kim YO, Lee S (2011a) Change-point analysis of mean temperature and extreme temperature in the Republic of Korea. Korean Geogr Soc 46(5):583–596Google Scholar
  16. Lee YG, Choi JW, Park JS, Yoon SJ (2011b) Compression strength test of FRP reinforced concrete composite pile. J Korean Soc Compos Struct 2(4):19–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lievendag N (2015) The creative’s 3D printing filament guide: ABS vs. PLA vs. many new, innovative materials. Accessed 13 Oct 2015
  18. National Academy of Agricultural Science (2014) List of regional disaster-proof greenhouses. Jinhan M&B, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  19. Park SE, Lee JW, Lee SG, Choi JH (2010) Analysis and reinforcing method of greenhouse frame for reducing heavy snow damage. Korean Soc Hazard Mitig 10(4):1–7Google Scholar
  20. Ru HR (2015) Structural improvement of freestanding greenhouse for meteorological disasters response. National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Jeollabuk-doGoogle Scholar
  21. Ubolsook P, Thepa S (2011) Structural analysis of bamboo trusses structure in greenhouse. In: 2nd International conference on environmental science and technology (IPCBEE), vol 6. IACSIT Press, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  22. Yoon ST, Lee YH, Hong SH, Kim MH, Kang KK, Na YE, Oh YJ (2013) Vulnerability assessment of cultivation facility by abnormal weather of climate change. Korean J Agric For Meteorol 15(4):264–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. You KP (2012) Evaluation of snow load using a snow simulation wind tunnel for single span and multiple span greenhouse roofs. J Archit Inst Korea Struct Constr 28(7):73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yu IH, Lee EH, Choi MW, Ryu HR, Moon DG (2013) Development of single-span plastic greenhouses for hot pepper rainproof cultivation. Hortic Plant Fact 22(4):371–377. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junsuk Kang
    • 1
  • Jeongbae Jeon
    • 2
  • Seongsoo Yoon
    • 3
  • Won Choi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural Systems Engineering, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix CorporationSpatial Information Research InstituteJeonju-siSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural and Rural Engineering, College of Agriculture, Life and Environments SciencesChungbuk National UniversityCheongju-siSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations