Paddy and Water Environment

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 1–11 | Cite as

Exposure to anti-mosquito insecticides utilized in rice fields affects survival of two non-target species, Ischnura elegans and Daphnia magna

  • Erica Subrero
  • Susanna Sforzini
  • Aldo Viarengo
  • Marco CuccoEmail author


Insecticides are commonly utilized to control mosquito larvae in rice fields. They can, however, have negative effects on both vertebrates and non-target invertebrate species. In this study, we examined the effects of pulse exposition to different concentrations of cypermethrin (0.15, 0.015, 0.0015 mg/L) and diflubenzuron (0.15, 0.015, 0.0015 mg/L) on egg hatching rate, larval growth, and larval survival in a damselfly, Ischnura elegans, and on survival of a crustacean, Daphnia magna. Insecticide exposure had significant negative effects on hatching rate in damselfly eggs. Exposed damselfly larvae also grew less and showed a higher mortality than control larvae. In Daphnia, the acute toxicity test (ISO 6341 in Water quality—determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea)—acute toxicity test, Int Organ Stand Geneve, Geneva, 2012) showed an increased inhibition of mobility in the presence of insecticides. We observed a proportional response in relation to insecticide concentration, such that the highest exposure levels showed the largest reduction of vital performances. Our highest tested values correspond to those currently employed in agriculture. This study suggests that exposure to two common insecticides strongly affects non-target invertebrates even at very low concentration levels (cypermethrin 0.0015 mg/L and diflubenzuron 0.0015 mg/L).


Cypermethrin Diflubenzuron Odonate Damselfly Water flea 



We thank Emiliano Tambornini and Daria Prini for assistance in damselfly rearing. The research is original and was supported by an Università del Piemonte Orientale “Ricerca locale 2016” Grant.


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© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DISITUniversity of Piemonte OrientaleAlessandriaItaly

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