Water availability and state of water resources within water-economic basins in Kazakhstan

  • Gulnura Issanova
  • Reyisha Jilili
  • Jilili Abuduwaili
  • Azamat Kaldybayev
  • Galymzhan Saparov
  • Ge Yongxiao
Article

Abstract

Water is one of the most important natural resources. The water availability and scarcity depend on various natural and anthropogenic factors. Based on generalization and analyses of the numerous cartographic materials, and long-term runoff data, the water-economic basins (WEBs) in Kazakhstan were classified in order to identify the basin affected by human activities the most, to show the dynamics of river runoff within Kazakhstan, as well as to estimate the demand for water resources in the WEBs. Additionally, the water availability in the WEBs was determined by share (%) of water resources (rivers, lakes, water reservoirs). The Zhaiyk-Caspian WEB has the highest share (94%) of river water. By water resource (43.8 km3), the Ertis WEB is the most water-rich basin. A significant anthropogenic transformation was observed in the Aral-Syrdarya and Esil WEBs. Both basins are characterized by a deteriorated water quality. Due to natural factors and human activities, the total runoff decreased by 39.4 km3/year (23 km3/year is transboundary and local runoff is 16.5 km3/year) since 1965. Water consumption has decreased to 57% due to reduction of irrigation areas and industrial activities. However, the water consumption has increased by 1.33 and 1.25 km3/year in communal services and other needs due to the population growth. The water demand in Zhaiyk-Caspian WEB is very high and estimated in crisis degree (fourth class). The Balkash-Alakol WEB is characterized by a critical degree of water demand and belongs to the third class of water demand.

Keywords

Water resources River runoff Water-economic basin Water demand Kazakhstan 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded and supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1603242), the Science and Technology Service Network Initiative (Y838031), the Training Program for Youth Innovative Talents in Science and Technology in Xinjiang (QN2016BS0052), and the Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Sciences President’s International Fellowship Initiative (2017PC0023).

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Copyright information

© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gulnura Issanova
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Reyisha Jilili
    • 4
  • Jilili Abuduwaili
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Azamat Kaldybayev
    • 3
    • 6
  • Galymzhan Saparov
    • 2
    • 7
  • Ge Yongxiao
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and GeographyChinese Academy of SciencesÜrümqiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.CAS Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central AsiaÜrümqiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Faculty of Geography and Environmental SciencesAl-Farabi Kazakh National UniversityAlmatyKazakhstan
  4. 4.School of Geographic Science and TourismXinjiang Normal UniversityÜrümqiPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.Institute of Ionosphere, Kamenskoe Plato, «Ionosphere» Gardener’s Association 117AlmatyKazakhstan
  7. 7.U.U. Uspanov Kazakh Research Institute of Soil Science and AgrochemistryAlmatyKazakhstan

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