Paddy and Water Environment

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 109–123 | Cite as

Parameterization of canopy resistance for modeling the energy partitioning of a paddy rice field

  • Haofang Yan
  • Chuan Zhang
  • Oue Hiroki


Models for predicting hourly canopy resistance (r c) and latent heat flux (LET) based on the Penman–Monteith (PM) and bulk transfer methods are presented. The micrometeorological data and LET were observed during paddy rice-growing seasons in 2010 in Japan. One approach to model r c was using an aerodynamic resistance (r a) and climatic resistance (r *), while another one was based on a relationship with solar radiation (SR). Nonlinear relationships between r c and r *, and between r c and SR were found for different growing stages of the rice crop. The constructed r c models were integrated to the PM and bulk transfer methods and compared with measured LET using a Bowen ratio–energy balance method. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) were 155.2 and 170.5 W m−2 for the bulk transfer method with r c estimated using r * and with a function of SR, respectively, while the RMSEs were 87.4 and 85.7 W m−2 for the PM method with r c estimated using r * and SR, respectively. The r c integrated PM equation provided better performance than the bulk transfer equation. The results also revealed that neglecting the effect of r a on r c did not yield a significant difference in predicting LET.


Climate resistance Bulk transfer method Canopy resistance Penman–Monteith model Meteorological data Bowen ratio–energy balance method Latent heat flux 



We greatly appreciate the careful and precise reviews by the anonymous reviewers and editors.


This study has been financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (51509107, 51609103); Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu province (BK20140546, BK20150509); National key research and development program (2016YFC0400104); and a project funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

Authors’ contributions

Haofang Yan, first author, contributed to conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content, final approval of the version to be published. Chuan Zhang contributed to conception and design, acquisition of data, participated sufficiently in the work and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Oue Hiroki contributed to conception and design, acquisition of data and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest


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Copyright information

© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering and Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and TechnologyJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangChina
  2. 2.Department of Water ManagementDelft University of TechnologyDelftNetherlands
  3. 3.Institute of Agricultural EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangChina
  4. 4.United Graduate School of Agricultural SciencesEhime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan

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