Advertisement

Paddy and Water Environment

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 89–98 | Cite as

Functions of indigenous animals in paddy fields: an in situ experiment on their effects on water quality, phytoplankton, weeds, soil structure, and rice growth

  • Noriko IwaiEmail author
  • Nana Koyama
  • Sakie Tsuji
  • Atsushi Maruyama
Article

Abstract

Paddy fields are used for growing semiaquatic rice and are also important habitats for a diversity of aquatic animals, which may be beneficial for rice production. However, studies on changes in environmental conditions such as water quality and community structure, and eventually in rice yield, made by animals in paddy fields are rare or have not used indigenous animals at natural densities in situ. We separately introduced the common paddy field species of loaches, tadpoles, and snails into 12 in situ enclosures at naturally occurring densities and examined their effects on paddy field environment and rice growth. Our results showed that rice growth did not increase in the presence of animals but was negatively correlated with weed biomass. Loaches increased turbidity and decreased the concentration of phosphate in surface water, probably because of their high bioturbation rates. Snails decreased the dissolved oxygen concentration in surface water. Total phytoplankton and weed biomass as well as soil density were not affected by the animals. These results show that nurturing animals in paddy fields could change the environment but does not cause higher rice production. The value of nurturing high animals in paddy fields may be found in other aspects besides rice growth.

Keywords

Bioturbation Ecological function Loach Predation Snail Tadpole 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We greatly thank M. Mawaki, M. Sabi, T. Shimomura, F. Shirasaki, T. Wakasugi, and the people in Ikeda-cho Nougyo-kosha for providing the research field and for their valuable assistance throughout the experiment. We also thank K. Nakagawa of Naturescape® Co., Ltd. for supporting our experiment. Ms. Yoshida in Ikeda Town provided accommodation during the experiment. Y. Natuhara supported our project, T. Otsuka provided valuable advice and helped measure phytoplankton, T. Yokota helped identify the weeds, and S. Goto advised on the statistics. H. Yamanaka and H. Okumura assisted with the phytoplankton measurements. K. Funatsu, T. Naka, K. Moriguchi, H. Shiromoto, T. Nakamura, M. Matsui, and K. Hata helped with the field work. We are grateful for all of the abovementioned colleagues. This study was financially supported by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Number 24241011).

References

  1. Akai K (2012) Field guide to weeds in Ikeda Town. The Association of Water and Soil Protection in Ikeda Town, FukuiGoogle Scholar
  2. Alford RA (1999) Ecology: resource use, competition, and predation. In: McDiarmid RW, Altig R (eds) Tadpoles: the biology of anuran larvae. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 240–278Google Scholar
  3. Amilhat E, Lorenzen K (2005) Habitat use, migration pattern and population dynamics of chevron snakehead Channa striata in a rainfed rice farming landscape. J Fish Biol 67:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anastacio PM, Correia AM, Menino JP, da Silva LM (2005) Are rice seedlings affected by changes in water quality caused by crayfish? Ann Limnol Int J Limnol 41:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asakawa S (2005) Material cycling in paddy fields. In: Saigusa M, Kimura M (eds) Introduction to soil science. Buneido-shuppan, Tokyo, pp 74–84Google Scholar
  6. Frei M, Razzak MA, Hossain MM, Oehme M, Dewan S, Becker K (2007) Performance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in integrated rice–fish culture in Bangladesh. Aquaculture 262:250–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fujioka M, Lane SJ (1997) The impact of changing irrigation practices in rice fields on frog populations of the Kanto Plain, central Japan. Ecol Res 12:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fujioka M, Don Lee S, Kurechi M, Yoshida H (2010) Bird use of rice fields in Korea and Japan. Waterbirds 33:8–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fukai Y, Koizumi S, Miyazawa J, Oshida M (2008) Effect of a mud snail environment on the taste characteristics of rice. J Cook Sci Jpn 41:138–147Google Scholar
  10. Hayashi Y, Hirano T, Azegami C, Hishiyama C, Nishida N (1989) Flowers in the field. Yama-kei Publishers, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  11. Hossain ST, Sugimoto H, Ahmed GJU, Islam MR (2005) Effect of integrated rice–duck farming on rice yield, farm productivity, and rice-provisioning ability of farmers. Asian J Agric Dev 2:79–86Google Scholar
  12. Iwai N, Kagaya T, Alford RA (2012) Feeding by omnivores increases food available to consumers. Oikos 121:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. JIS K 0400-80-10 (2000) Water quality-measurement of biochemical parameters—spectrometric determination of the chlorophyll-a concentrationGoogle Scholar
  14. Joyni MJ, Kurup BM, Avnimelech Y (2011) Bioturbation as a possible means for increasing production and improving pond soil characteristics in shrimp-fish brackish water ponds. Aquaculture 318:464–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Katano O, Hosoya K, Iguchu K, Yamaguchi M, Aonuma Y, Kitano S (2003) Species diversity and abundance of freshwater fishes in irrigation ditches around rice fields. Environ Biol Fish 66:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kiritani K (2000) Integrated biodiversity management in paddy fields: shift of paradigm from IPM toward IBM. Integr Pest Manag Rev 5:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koizumi N, Takemura T, Okushima S, Yamamoto S, Aiga H (2005) Field research of environmental properties of drainage canal and fish distribution in Yatsu paddy field, Chiba Prefecture. Tech Rep Natl Inst Rural Eng 203:39–46Google Scholar
  18. Lawler SP (2001) Rice fields as temporary wetlands: a review. Israel J Zool 47:513–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Long P, Huang H, Liao X, Fu Z, Zheng H, Chen A, Chen C (2013) Mechanism and capacities of reducing ecological cost through rice–duck cultivation. J Sci Food Agric 93:2881–2891CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Miyashita T, Chishiki Y, Takagi SR (2012) Landscape heterogeneity at multiple spatial scales enhances spider species richness in an agricultural landscape. Popul Ecol 54:573–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Natuhara Y (2013) Ecosystem services by paddy fields as substitutes of natural wetlands in Japan. Ecol Eng 56:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nguyen N, Ferrero A (2006) Meeting the challenges of global rice production. Paddy Water Environ 4:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nishimura Y, Ohtsuka T, Yoshiyama K, Nakai D, Shibahara F, Maehata M (2011) Cascading effects of larval Crucian carp introduction on phytoplankton and microbial communities in a paddy field: top-down and bottom-up controls. Ecol Res 26:615–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ohba S-Y, Nakasuji F (2007) Density-mediated indirect effects of a common prey tadpole on interaction between two predatory bugs: Kirkaldyia deyrolli and Laccotrephes japonensis. Popul Ecol 49:331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Osawa S, Katsuno T (2001) Dispersal of brown frogs Rana japonica and R. ornativentris in the forests of the Tama hills. Curr Herpetol 20:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pernollet CA, Simpson D, Gauthier-Clerc M, Guillemain M (2015) Rice and duck, a good combination? Identifying the incentives and triggers for joint rice farming and wild duck conservation. Agr Ecosyst Environ 214:118–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pinowska A (2002) Effects of snail grazing and nutrient release on growth of the macrophytes Ceratophyllm demersum and Elodea canadensis and the filamentous green alga Cladophora sp. Hydrobiologia 479:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. R Development Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/
  29. Raebel EM, Merckx T, Riordan P, Macdonald DW, Thompson DJ (2010) The dragonfly delusion: why it is essential to sample exuviae to avoid biased surveys. J Insect Conserv 14:523–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rippey B, Jewson D (1982) The rates of sediment-water exchange of oxygen and sediment bioturbation in Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. In: Sly P (ed) Sediment/freshwater interaction. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 377–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ritvo G, Kochba M, Avnimelech Y (2004) The effects of common carp bioturbation on fishpond bottom soil. Aquaculture 242:345–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rothuis AJ, Vromant N, Xuan VT, Richter CJJ, Ollevier F (1999) The effect of rice seeding rate on rice and fish production, and weed abundance in direct-seeded rice–fish culture. Aquaculture 172:255–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saijo Y, Mitamura O (1995) Methods for surveys in lakes and ponds. Kodansha, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  34. Saitoh K (2015) History of Japanese rice production. In: Natuhara Y (ed) Paddy fields—full of life. Information Design Associates Kyoto, Kyoto, pp 48–57Google Scholar
  35. Stevens MM, Warren GN (2000) Laboratory studies on the influence of the earthworm Eukerria saltensis (Beddard) (Oligochaeta: Ocnerodrilidae) on overlying water quality and rice plant establishment. Int J Pest Manag 46:303–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sun G, Fang Y, Wang A, Yan Y (2010) Bioturbation effects of benthic fish on the phosphorus dynamic in overlying water of paddy field. Agric Sci Tech Hunan 11:87–89Google Scholar
  37. Tanaka M (1999) Influence of different aquatic habitats on distribution and population density of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus in paddy fields. Jpn J Ichthyol 46:75–81Google Scholar
  38. Teng Q, Hu XF, Luo F, Cheng C, Ge XY, Yang MY, Liu LM (2016) Influences of introducing frogs in the paddy fields on soil properties and rice growth. J Soil Sediment 16:51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tsuji M, Ushimaru A, Osawa T, Mitsuhashi H (2011) Paddy-associated frog declines via urbanization: a test of the dispersal-dependent-decline hypothesis. Landsc Urban Plan 103:318–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tsuruta T, Yamaguchi M, Abe S, Iguchi K (2011) Effect of fish in rice–fish culture on the rice yield. Fish Sci 77:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Uchiyama R (2005) Fauna and flora in rice paddies. Yama-kei Publishers, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  42. Vanni MJ, Flecker AS, Hood JM, Headworth JL (2002) Stoichiometry of nutrient recycling by vertebrates in a tropical stream: linking species identity and ecosystem processes. Ecol Lett 5:285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vromant N, Chau NTH (2005) Overall effect of rice biomass and fish on the aquatic ecology of experimental rice plots. Agric Ecosyst Environ 111:153–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yaro I, Lamai SL, Oladimeji AA (2005) The effect of different fertilizer treatments on water quality parameters in rice-cum-fish culture systems. J Appl Ichthyol 21:399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering and Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Graduate School of AgricultureTokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyFuchuJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Science and TechnologyRyukoku UniversityOtsuJapan

Personalised recommendations