Paddy and Water Environment

, Volume 11, Issue 1–4, pp 543–550 | Cite as

A review on microbial and toxic risk analysis procedure for reclaimed wastewater irrigation on paddy rice field proposed for South Korea

  • Y. K. SonEmail author
  • C. G. Yoon
  • H. P. Rhee
  • S. J. Lee


Water shortage has become a major agricultural concern, and “The Sustainable Water Resources Research Program” in Korea is currently addressing this problem through the development of treatment systems for reclaiming wastewater and the assessment of human health risks associated with its reuse. Through this program, started in 2001, many studies have examined various water resources. Reclaiming wastewater is one way to alleviate water-shortage pressures, and one of the major potential uses of reclaimed water is irrigation. However, the main concern with reusing reclaimed wastewater is the increased likelihood of human contact that might result in exposure to pathogens and increased health risks. Relatively few studies have examined the toxic risks using reclaimed wastewater for irrigation in rice paddy fields. This study provides an overview of methods for quantitative microbial risk assessment and toxic risk assessment of heavy metal concentrations developed in the previous studies that can be applied to the evaluation of rice paddy fields irrigated with reclaimed wastewater in South Korea.


Reclaimed wastewater Risk assessment Microbial Toxic heavy metal Paddy Irrigation 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. K. Son
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. G. Yoon
    • 1
  • H. P. Rhee
    • 1
  • S. J. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceKonkuk UniversityGwangjin-guKorea

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