Advertisement

Paddy and Water Environment

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 163–180 | Cite as

Review of SRI modifications in rice crop and water management and research issues for making further improvements in agricultural and water productivity

  • Amir Kassam
  • Willem Stoop
  • Norman Uphoff
Review

Abstract

Much of the focus of agricultural improvement efforts in recent decades has been on modifying crops’ genetic potential more than on improving cropping practices and production systems. Certainly, this genocentric approach has made significant contributions to food production in certain parts of the world under the banner of “the Green Revolution.” Yields have been raised substantially through varietal improvements and the increased use of inputs, including energy, agrochemicals, and delivering more water to crops through irrigation technology. In the past two decades, however, gains from this strategy have decelerated, with increasing economic and environmental costs of this input-dependent approach. Accordingly, there is reason to consider what can be accomplished by making optimizing changes in crops’ growing environments both above ground and, especially, below ground. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar has been showing that, by modifying crop, soil, water and nutrient management, it can under most of the circumstances evaluated thus far raise of the productivity of land, water, seeds, capital, and labor used for irrigated rice production. This article summarizes and reflects on the evidence provided in the preceding articles in this special issue. It draws on the scientific evaluations and field experience from Asia, Africa, and Latin America to offer some conclusions about the methodology known as SRI. Since this methodology is still evolving, no final assessment is possible. Much more research and evaluation remain to be done, and there will be further modifications and refinements since making adaptations to local conditions is regarded as intrinsic to the methodology. Further improvements in SRI will come from both researchers and farmers, with the latter considered as partners rather than simply adopters. This is consistent with SRI’s representing a paradigm shift more than a fixed technology. The article identifies a number of areas for additional research that can probably improve factor productivity still further.

Keywords

Genetic improvement Mechanization Rice phenotypes Root system System of rice intensification Water productivity 

References

  1. Adhikari P, Sen D, Uphoff N (2010) System of Rice Intensification as a resource-conserving methodology: contributing to food security in an era of climate change. SATSA Mukhapatra, vol 14. State Agricultural Technologists Service Association, Kolkata, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Africare/Oxfam America/WWF-ICRISAT Project (2010) More rice for people, more water for the planet. WWF-ICRISAT Project, Hyderabad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Akita K, Tanaka N (1992) Effects of planting density and planting patterns on young seedlings transplanting on the growth and yield of rice plants. Jpn J Crop Sci 61:80–86Google Scholar
  4. Anthofer J (2004) The potential of the System of Rice Intensification for poverty reduction in Cambodia. Deutscher Tropentag, Berlin. http://www.tropentag.de/2004/abstracts/full/399.pdf
  5. Barison J, Uphoff N (2011) Rice yield and its relation to root growth and nutrient-use efficiency under SRI and conventional cultivation: an evaluation in Madagascar. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0229-z
  6. CEDAC (2007) Experiences in multi-purpose farm development in Cambodia: raising household incomes by utilizing productivity gains from the system of rice intensification. Centre for Study and Development of Cambodian Agriculture, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/cambodia/cambSidMPREng.pdf
  7. Ceesay M (2011) An opportunity for increasing factor productivity for rice cultivation in The Gambia through SRI. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0235-1
  8. Ceesay M, Shaw WS, Fernandes ECM, Uphoff N (2006) Effects of repeated soil wetting and drying on lowland rice yield with System of Rice Intensification (SRI) methods. Int J Agric Sustain 4:5–14Google Scholar
  9. Chaboussou F (2004) Healthy crops: a new agricultural revolution. Jon Anderson Publishers, Charnley, UKGoogle Scholar
  10. Chapagain T, Yamaji E (2009) The effects of irrigation method, age of seedling and spacing on crop performance productivity and water-wise rice production in Japan. Paddy Water Environ 81–90Google Scholar
  11. De Datta SK (1981) Principles and practices of rice production. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Dobermann A (2004) A critical assessment of the system of rice intensification (SRI). Agric Syst 79:261–281Google Scholar
  13. Dung NT (2007) SRI application in rice production in northern ecological areas of Vietnam. Report of National IPM Program to Council of Science & Technology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Hanoi. http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/vietnam/vnMARDdecree07.pdf
  14. Dung NT (2010) SRI application in Vietnam. Presentation to SRI Day, Hanoi, Nov 8. http://www.slideshare.net/SRI.CORNELL/sri-application-in-vietnam
  15. Horie T, Shiraiwa T, Homma H, Katsura K, Maeda S, Yoshida H (2005) Can yields of lowland rice resume the increases that they showed in the 1980s? Plant Prod Sci 8:257–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. ICRISAT/WWF (2009) Sustainable sugarcane initiative: improving sugarcane cultivation in India—a manual. ICRISAT/WWF Dialogue Project on Food, Water and Environment, Hyderabad, India. http://assets.panda.org/downloads/ssi_manual.pdf
  17. Iswandi A, Rupela OP, Thiyagarajan TM, Uphoff N (2011) Effects of SRI on beneficial organisms in rice rhizospheres and soil (this issue)Google Scholar
  18. Kabir H, Uphoff N (2007) Results of disseminating the System of Rice Intensification with Farmer Field School methods in Northern Myanmar. Exp Agric 43:463–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kar S, Varade SB, Sybramanyam TK, Ghildyal BP (1974) Nature and growth pattern of rice root system under submerged and unsaturated conditions. II Riso 23:173–179Google Scholar
  20. Karki S (2010) System of Rice Intensification: an analysis of adoption and potential environmental benefits. Master’s thesis, Norwegian University of Life SciencesGoogle Scholar
  21. Kende H, van der Knaap E, Cho HT (1998) Deepwater rice: a model plant to study stem elongation. Plant Physiol 118:1105–1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kirk GJD, Bouldin DR (1991) Speculations on the operation of the rice root system in relation to nutrient uptake. In: Penning de Vries FWT et al (eds) Simulation and systems analysis for rice production, Pudoc, Wageningen, Netherlands, pp 195–203Google Scholar
  23. Laulanié H (1993a) Le système de riziculture intensive malgache. Tropicultura 11:110–114Google Scholar
  24. Laulanié H (1993b) Technical presentation of the System of Rice Intensification cased on Katayama’s tillering model. http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/aboutsri/origin/Laulanie.pdf
  25. Lin XQ, Zhu DF, Chen HX, Cheng SH, Uphoff N (2009) Effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer rates on grain yield and nitrogen uptake of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Agric Biotechnol Sustain Dev 1:44–53Google Scholar
  26. Lin XQ, Zhu DF, Lin XJ (2011) Effects of water management and organic fertilization with SRI crop practices on hybrid rice growth and rhizosphere biota. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0238-y
  27. Lu SH, Zheng XZ, Ren GJ, Zhang FS (2009) Introduction of the land-cover integrated technologies with water saving and higher yield. J Sichuan Agric Sci Tech 2:23. http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/countries/china/ChinaSichuanDroughtResist09.pdf
  28. Ma J (2005) Paper, in Chinese, by Prof. Ma Jun reporting research at Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on ‘Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,’ Haerbin, Aug 24Google Scholar
  29. Manjunatha BN, Basavarajappa R, Pujari BT (2010) Effect of age of seedlings on growth, yield and water requirements by different system of rice intensification. Karnataka J Agric Sci 23:231–234Google Scholar
  30. Maraseni TN, Mushtaq S, Maroulis J (2009) Greenhouse gas emissions from rice farming inputs: a cross-country assessment. J Agric Sci 147:117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mati BM, Wanjogu R, Odongo B, Home PG (2011) Introduction of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Kenya: experiences from the Mwea Scheme. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0241-3
  32. Meyer R (2009) Agricultural technologies for developing countries. European Parliament, Brussels. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/stoa/default_en.htm
  33. Mishra A, Salokhe VM (2008) Seedling characteristics and the early growth of transplanted rice under different water regimes. Exper Agric 44:1–19Google Scholar
  34. Mishra A, Salokhe VM (2011) Rice root growth and physiological responses to SRI water management and implications for crop productivity. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0240-4
  35. Mishra A, Uphoff N (2011) System of Rice Intensification: ‘Less can be more’ with climate-friendly technology. SATSA Mukhapatra, vol 15. State Agricultural Technologists Service Association, Kolkata, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  36. Mishra A, Whitten M, Ketelaar JW, Salokhe VM (2006) The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): a challenge for science and an opportunity for farmer empowerment toward sustainable agriculture. Int J Agric Sustain 4:193–212Google Scholar
  37. Moser CM, Barrett CB (2003) The disappointing adoption dynamics of a yield-increasing, low external-input technology: the case of SRI in Madagascar. Agric Syst 76:1085–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. MSSRF (2006) M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation Annual Report, 2005–2006. M. S. Research Foundation, Chennai, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  39. Namara R, Bossio D, Weligamage P, Herath I (2008) The practice and effects of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Sri Lanka. Q J Int Agric 47:5–23Google Scholar
  40. Pasuquin E, Lafarge T, Tubana B (2008) Transplanting young seedlings in irrigated rice fields: early and high tillering production enhanced grain yield. Field Crops Res 105:141–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Prasad A (2008) Going against the grain: the system of rice intensification is now being adapted to wheat—with similar good results. Outlook Business, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  42. Randriamiharisoa R, Uphoff N (2002) Factorial trials evaluating the separate and combined effects of SRI practices. In: Uphoff N, Fernandes ECM, Yuan LP, Peng JM, Rafaralahy S, Rabenandrasana J (eds) Assessments of the System of Rice Intensification. Cornell International Institute of Food Agric Development, Ithaca, NY. http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/proc1/sri_10.pdf
  43. Ravindra A, Baghya S (2011) Potential of SRI for systemic improvement in rice production and water use: the case of Andhra Pradesh, India. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0230-6
  44. Reichardt W, Dobermann A, George T (1998) Intensification of rice production systems: opportunities and limits. In: Dowling NG, Greenfield SM, Fischer KS (eds) Rice in the global food system. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  45. Royal Society (2009) Reaping the benefits: science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture. Report of Commission chaired by Sir D. Baulcombe. Royal Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  46. Sato S, Uphoff N (2007) A review of on-farm evaluations of System of Rice Intensification methods in Eastern Indonesia. CABI Rev 2:1–12Google Scholar
  47. Sato S, Yamaji E, Kuroda T (2011) Strategies and engineering adaptations to disseminate SRI methods in large-scale irrigation systems in Eastern Indonesia. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0242-2
  48. Satyanarayana A, Thiyagarajan TM, Uphoff N (2007) Opportunities for water saving with higher yield from the system of rice intensification. Irrig Sci 25:99–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sharif A (2011) Technical adaptations for mechanized SRI production to achieve water saving and increased profitability in Punjab, Pakistan. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0223-5
  50. Sheehy JE, Peng S, Dobermann A, Mitchell PC, Ferrer A, Yang JC, Zou YB, Zhong XH, Huang JL (2004) Fantastic yields with the system of rice intensification: fact or fallacy? Field Crops Res 88:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sinclair TR (2004) Agronomic UFOs waste valuable scientific resources. Rice Today, July–Sept, vol 43. International Rice Research Institute, Los BañosGoogle Scholar
  52. Sinha SK, Talati J (2007) Productivity impacts of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): a case study in West Bengal, India. Agric Water Manag 87:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stoop WA (2011) The scientific case for the System of Rice Intensification and its relevance for sustainable crop intensification. Manuscript under review by Int J Sustain AgricGoogle Scholar
  54. Stoop WA, Adam A, Kassam A (2009) Comparing rice production systems: a challenge for agronomic research and for the dissemination of knowledge-intensive farming practices. Agric Water Manag 96:1491–1501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Styger E, Attaher MA, Guindo H, Ibrahim H, Diaty M, Abba I, Traore M (2011) Application of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) practices in an arid environment in the Timbuktu region of Mali. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0237-z
  56. Thakur AK, Uphoff N, Antony E (2010a) An assessment of physiological effects of system of rice intensification (SRI) practices compared to recommended rice cultivation practices in India. Exp Agric 46:77–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Thakur AK, Rath S, Roychowdhury S, Uphoff N (2010b) Comparative performance of rice with system of rice intensification (SRI) and conventional management using different plant spacings. J Agron Crop Sci 196:146–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Thakur AK, Rath S, Patil DU, Kumar A (2011) Effects on rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated management practices of the System of Rice Intensification and their implications for crop performance. Paddy Water Environ 9(1). doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0236-0
  59. Uphoff N (2006) The development of the System of Rice Intensification. In: Gonsalves J et al (eds) Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development, vol III. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, pp 119–125Google Scholar
  60. Uphoff N (2007) Farmer innovations improving the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Colloquium on ‘Farmer First Revisited: Farmer Participatory Research and Development Twenty Years On,’ Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, Dec 12–14. http://www.future-agricultures.org/farmerfirst/files/T1a_Uphoff.pdf
  61. Uphoff N (2011) Agroecological approaches to ‘climate-proofing’ agriculture while raising productivity in the 21st century. In: Sauer T, Norman J, Sivakumar M (eds) Sustaining soil productivity in response to global climate change. Wiley-Blackwell, New York (in press)Google Scholar
  62. Uphoff N, Randriamiharisoa R (2002) Reducing water use in irrigated rice production with the Madagascar System of Rice Intensification (SRI). In: Bouman BA, Hengsdijk H, Hardy B, Bindraban PS, Thuong TP, Ladha JK (eds) Water-wise rice production. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines, pp 71–88Google Scholar
  63. Uphoff N, Ball A, Fernandes ECM, Herren H, Husson O, Laing M, Palm CA, Pretty J, Sanchez PA, Sanginga N, Thies JE (2006) Biological approaches to sustainable soil systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Uprety R (2010) Meshing mechanization with SRI methods in Nepal. Paper presented at 3rd International Rice Congress, Hanoi, Nov 9. http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/conferences/IRC2010/IRC2010UpretyPaper.pdf
  65. Yuan LP (2002) A scientist’s perspective on experience with SRI in China for raising the yields of super-hybrid rice. In: Uphoff N, Fernandes ECM, Yuan LP, Peng JM, Rafaralahy S, Rabenandrasana J (eds) Assessments of the System of Rice Intensification. Cornell International Institute of Food, Agriculture, Development, Ithaca, NY, pp 23–25. http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/proc1/sri_06.pdf
  66. Zhang WJ, Liu J (2009). System of wheat-rice intensification (SWRI) with conservation farming in Jiangsu province. Centre for Agro-Ecology and Farming Systems, China Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing. http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/countries/china/chSWRIwheatriceCAAS08.pdf
  67. Zhang WJ, Lu M (2010) Innovational rice-wheat cropping system for higher yield with lower emissions in China, based on the concepts of SRI. Paper from Institute of Crop Science http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/china/ChinaSWRI_Zhang2010.pdf
  68. Zhang H, Chen T, Wang Z, Yang J, Zhang J (2010) Involvement of cytokinins in the grain filling of rice under alternate wetting and drying irrigation. J Exp Bot 61:3719–3733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhao L, Wu L, Li Y, Lu X, Zhu DF, Uphoff N (2009) Influence of the system of rice intensification on rice yield and nitrogen and water use efficiency with different N application rates. Exp Agric 45:275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhao LM, Wu LH, Wu MY, Li YS (2011) Nutrient uptake and water use efficiency as affected by modified rice cultivation methods with reduced irrigation. Paddy Water Environ (this issue)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Reading UniversityReadingUK
  2. 2.Stoop-ConsultDriebergenNetherlands
  3. 3.Cornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations