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Paddy and Water Environment

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 183–191 | Cite as

Quantitative risk assessment for reclaimed wastewater irrigation on paddy rice field in Korea

  • H. P. Rhee
  • C. G. YoonEmail author
  • Y. K. Son
  • J. H. Jang
Article

Abstract

Water shortage has become an important issue for Korean agriculture. Korea suffers from a limited agricultural water supply, and wastewater reuse has been recommended as an alternative solution. This study examined the concentrations of toxic heavy metals and Escherichia coli in a paddy rice field irrigated with reclaimed wastewater to evaluate the risk to farmers. Most epidemiological studies have been based on upland fields, and therefore may not be directly applicable to paddy fields. In this study, a Beta-Poisson model was used to estimate the microbial risk of pathogen ingestion. The risk value increased significantly after irrigation and precipitation. The results of the microbial risk assessment showed that risk values of groundwater and reclaimed wastewater irrigation were lower than the values of effluent directly from wastewater treatment plants. The monitoring results of heavy metals for each irrigated paddy fields did not show specific tendency. A risk assessment for toxic heavy metals was performed according to various exposure pathways; however, the results of the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk estimation showed that the risk from reclaimed wastewater-irrigated paddy fields was the lowest.

Keywords

Risk assessment Paddy rice field Wastewater reuse Reclaimed wastewater 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a Grant (code#4-5-3) from the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center of the 21st Century Frontier Research Program in Korea.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. P. Rhee
    • 1
  • C. G. Yoon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Y. K. Son
    • 1
  • J. H. Jang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceKonkuk UniversityGwangjin-guKorea

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