Paddy and Water Environment

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 259–270 | Cite as

The causes of soil alkalinization in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China

  • Li Wang
  • Katsutoshi Seki
  • T. Miyazaki
  • Y. Ishihama
Review

Abstract

The causes of soil alkalinization in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China were mainly analyzed from two aspects, natural and anthropogenic. Natural factors of alkalinization are parent materials, topographic positions, freeze-thaw action, wind conveyance, water properties and semi-arid/sub-humid climate. Some of them were always being neglected, such as freeze-thaw action and wind conveyance. Anthropogenic causes are mainly population pressure, overgrazing and improper agricultural and economic policies. In recent decades, overgrazing played a main role in secondary soil alkalinization, which led to the decline of Leymus chinensis grasslands. Now, the alkalinization is very severe, and more than 3.2 × 106 ha area has been affected by salt, which becomes one of the three largest sodic–saline areas in the world.

Keywords

Songnen Plain Soil alkalinization Groundwater Human activities Overgrazing 

References

  1. Álvarez RJ, Ortiz SR, Alcaraz AF (2001) Edaphic characterization and soil ionic composition influencing plant zonation in a semiarid Mediterranean salt marsh. Geoderma 99:81–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer S, Smeins FE (1991) Ecosystem-level processes. In: Heitschmidt RK, Stuth JW (eds) Grazing management: an ecological perspective. Timber Press, Portland, pp 109–139, 259Google Scholar
  3. Bian J, Tang J, Lin N (2008) Relationship between saline-alkali soil formation and neotectonic movement in Songnen Plain, China. Environ Geol 55:1421–1429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chang J, Zhu TC (1989) Study on the water condition of Aneurolepidium chinense community (in Chinese). Acta Phytoecologica et Geobotanica Sinica 13:219–229Google Scholar
  5. Gao Q, Zheng HY, Li JD (1994) A simulation model for the plant-environmental system of alkalized grassland on the Songnen Plain in the Northeast China (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 18(1):56–67Google Scholar
  6. Gao Q, Yang XS, Yun R, Li CP (1996) MACE, a dynamic model of alkali grassland ecosystems with variable soil characteristics. Ecol Model 93:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guo YD, He YF (2005) The dynamics of wetland landscape and its driving forces in Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Wetland Sci 3(1):54–59Google Scholar
  8. Guo JS, Zhang WZ, Xiao HX (1994) Vegetation degeneration and soil alkalinization in the Leymus chinensis lands (in Chinese). Agric Technol 2:39–43Google Scholar
  9. Guo JS, Jiang SC, Suo G (1998) Comparative study on remedy ways of saline-alkali grassland in Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin J Appl Ecol 9(4):425–428Google Scholar
  10. Hilgard EW (1906) Soils, their formation, properties, composition, and relations to climate and plant growth. Macmillan, New York, p 593Google Scholar
  11. Li XJ (2000) The Alkili-saline land and agricultural sustainable development of the Western Songnen Plain in China (in Chinese with English abstract). Sci Geogr Sin 20(1):51–55Google Scholar
  12. Li B, Wang ZC (2006) The alkalization parameters and their influential factors of saline-sodic soil in the Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). J Arid Land Resour Environ 20(6):183–191Google Scholar
  13. Li SY, Xiao YF (1965) Primary dividing of grazing stages in Leymus chinensis grassland in Muodamuji, Nei Mongolia (in Chinese). Acta Phytoecol Geobot Sin 3:200–207Google Scholar
  14. Li JD, Zheng HY (1997) Amelioration of alkalized grassland and its ecological mechanism in the Songnen Plain (in Chinese). Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  15. Li CH, Zheng XF, Zhao KY, Ye JX (1983) Basic types of pasture vegetation in the Songnen plain. In: Proceedings of XIV International Grassland Congress, 15–24 June 1981, Lexington. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 432–434, 876Google Scholar
  16. Li QS, Qiu SW, Deng W (1998) Study on the secondary saline-alkalinization of land in the Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Sci Geogr Sin 18(3):268–272Google Scholar
  17. Li XJ, Li QS, Wang ZC, Liu XT (2002) A research on characteristics and rational exploitation of soda saline land in the Western Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Res Agric Mod 23(5):361–364Google Scholar
  18. Li QS, Li XJ, Wang Z, Song CC, Zhang GX (2003) Sodium bicarbonate soil management and utilization in Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Resour Sci 25(1):15–20Google Scholar
  19. Li JP, Zhao JH, Zhang B (2006) Research on spatial-temporal dynamics and landscape pattern change of grassland in Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin J Grassl 28(2):6–12Google Scholar
  20. Li X, Wang Z, Song K, Zhang B, Liu D, Guo Z (2007) Assessment for salinized wasteland expansion and land use change using GIS and remote sensing in the west part of Northeast China. Environ Monit Assess 131:421–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lin NF, Tang J (2005) Study on the environment evolution and the analysis of causes to land salinization and desertification in Songnen plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Quater Sci 25(4):474–483Google Scholar
  22. Lin NF, Bounlom V, Tang J, Bian JM (2005) Study on the relation between the formation of saline-alkali soil and the neotectonic movement (in Chinese with English abstract). Global Geol 24(3):282–288, 311Google Scholar
  23. Liu CM, Xia J, Yu JJ (2007) Strategic study on the issues of resources distribution, protection of eco-environment and sustainable development in the Northeast China. Science Press, Beijing, pp 96–101, 168–187Google Scholar
  24. Luo XZ, Zhu T, Sun GY (2002) Influence of human activities on ecological environment of the Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin Popul Resour Environ 12(4):94–99Google Scholar
  25. Metternicht G (2001) Assessing temporal and spatial changes of salinity using fuzzy logic, remote sensing and GIS Foundations of an expert system. Ecol Model 144:163–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qiu SW, Zhang B, Wang ZC (2005) Analyses on current situation, causes of formation, and way of management of desertification in western Northeast Plain of China (in Chinese with English abstract). Quat Sci 25(1):63–73Google Scholar
  27. Qu GH, Guo JS (2003) The relationship between different plant communities and soil characteristics in Songnen grassland (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Pratac Sin 12(1):18–22Google Scholar
  28. Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. United States Salinity Laboratory Staff, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, USA. Agriculture Handbook No. 60, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  29. Sheng LX, Ma XF, Wang ZP (2002) Study on the recovery and control of the alkili-saline lands in the Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). J Northeast Normal Univ 34(1):30–35Google Scholar
  30. Song XS, He Y, Deng W, Yan BX, Zhang GX (2000) Study on saline-alkali soil moisture diffusivity in the Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Soil Environ Sci 9(3):210–213Google Scholar
  31. Szabolcs I (1992) Salinization of soil and water and its relation to desertification. Desertif Bull 21:27–32Google Scholar
  32. Wang ZC (1999) Sustainable development of rice in the Songnen Plain (in Chinese). Territ Nat Resour Stud 2:51–52Google Scholar
  33. Wang XF (2000) Analysis on population growth of the Northeast China before 1949 (in Chinese with English abstract). Northeast Asia Forum (4): 86–88Google Scholar
  34. Wang HJ (2006) The change of cropland and ecological effect on the Northeast China since 1949. Master thesis, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, pp 25–26Google Scholar
  35. Wang RZ, Earle AR (1997) Effects of grazing on a Leymus chinensis grassland on the Songnen plain of north-eastern China. J Arid Environ 36:307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang RZ, Li JD (1993) Effect of grazing on distribution of plant populations of Aneurolepidium chinense grassland on Songnen plain (in Chinese). Pratacult Sci 10(3):27–34Google Scholar
  37. Wang RZ, Li JD (1995a) Dynamic population models of the ecological dominance during the deterioration of Leymus chinensis grassland (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Phytoecol Sin 19:170–174Google Scholar
  38. Wang RZ, Li JD (1995b) Grazing succession pattern of alkalized Aneurolepidium chinense grassland in Songnen plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin J Appl Ecol 6:277–281Google Scholar
  39. Wang ZY, Liu ZX (2004) Effect of soil conditioner MDM on meadow alkali soils and growth of rice (in Chinese with English abstract). Agric Res Arid Areas 22(2):31–34Google Scholar
  40. Wang FS, Tian ZC (2002) The groundwater effect in the process of soil salinization of the Songnen plain, Jilin province (in Chinese with English abstract). Jilin Geol 21(1–2):79–87Google Scholar
  41. Wang CY, Wu ZJ (2004) Salt-affected soil in Northeast China (in Chinese). Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang YH, Zhou GS (2001) Analysis on ecophysiological characteristics of leaf photosynthesis of Aneurolepidium chinense in Songnen grassland (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin J Appl Ecol 12(1):75–79Google Scholar
  43. Wang J, Xiao YH, Zhu P, Suo Y, Shi YL (1995) Development and effect factors of salt-affected lands in the Songnen Plain (in Chinese). Agric Sci Jilin 2:66–71Google Scholar
  44. Wang P, Li JD, Ou YL (1997) Studies on the adaptability and tolerance of Puccinellia tenuiflora to salinity in the salinized grassland in the Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Agrestia Sin 5(2):80–84Google Scholar
  45. Wang RZ, Gao Q, Chen Q (2003) Effects of climatic change on biomass and biomass allocation in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) along the North-east China Transect (NECT). J Arid Environ 54:653–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang CY, Wu ZJ, Shi YL, Wang RY (2004a) The resource of saline soil in the Northeast China (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin J Soil Sci 25(5):643–647Google Scholar
  47. Wang HX, Wan ZJ, Yu SP, Luo XZ, Sun GY (2004b) The restoration of wetlands in the Songnen Plain about 150 years ago (in Chinese with English abstract). J Northeast Normal Univ 36(2):75–81Google Scholar
  48. Wang ZC, Li QS, Li XJ, Song CC, Zhang GX (2004c) Saline-alkali land management and countermeasures of sustainable agricultural development in Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin J Eco-Agric 12(2):161–163Google Scholar
  49. Wang ZM, Zhang B, Huang SJ, Li JP, Song KS, Duan HT (2005) Evolution analysis of land use structure of Songnen plain based on GIS and information entropy-In terms with disorder degree, complexity and diversity (in Chinese with English abstract). Syst Sci Compr Stud Agric 21(3):196–200Google Scholar
  50. Wang L, Miyazaki T, Ishihama Y, Seki K (2007) The variation of soil physical properties on alkali grasslands in Anda City of Heilongjiang Province (in Chinese with English abstract). Pratacult Sci 24(10):19–25Google Scholar
  51. Whitman WC (1971) Influence of grazing on the microclimate of mixed-grass prairie. In: Kreitlow KM, Hart RH (eds) Plant morphogenesis as the basis for scientific management of range resources. Agricultural Research Service, Miscellaneous Publication No. 1271. USDA, Washington, pp 207–218Google Scholar
  52. Willms WD, Smoliak S, Bailey AW (1986) Herbage production following litter removal on Alberta native grasslands. J Range Manag 39:536–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wu L, Li QS (2003) Research of mechanism of saline desertification in Western Songnen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). J Soil Water Conserv 17(4):79–81, 93Google Scholar
  54. Xiao XM, Wang YF, Jiang S, Ojima DS, Bonham CD (1995) Interannual variation in the climate and above-ground biomass of Leymus chinensis steppe and Stipa grandis steppe in the Xilin river basin, Inner Mongolia, China. J Arid Environ 31:283–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Xu J, Haginoya S, Saito K, Motoya K (2005) Surface heat balance and pan evaporation trends in Eastern Asia in the period 1971–2000. Hydrol Process 19:2161–2186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yao RJ, Yang JS, Liu GM (2006) Characteristics and agro-biological management of saline-alkalized land in the Northeast China (in Chinese with English abstract). Soils 38(3):256–262Google Scholar
  57. Yin HN, Tang Z, Lu F (2003) Analysis of eco-environment degradation mechanism in the west of Northeast Plain in China during the last 100 years (in Chinese with English abstract). Res Soil Water Conserv 10(4):190–192Google Scholar
  58. Zhang WZ (1993) Secondary salinization of grassland soil: the formation of secondary saline-alkali soil patches in grassland of Songnen plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Pedol Sin 30:182–190Google Scholar
  59. Zhang WZ (1994) The relationship between vegetation degeneration and soil salinization in an Aneurolepidium Chinense grassland of the Sonenen Plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Phytoecol Sin 18(1):50–55Google Scholar
  60. Zhang WZ, Gao Q (1994) Exploration of the movements of water and dissolved salts in soils under different plant community in Aneurolepidium chinense grassland of Songnen plain (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Phytoecol Sin 18(2):132–139Google Scholar
  61. Zhang DF, Lin NF (1999) Cause and countermeasure of land degradation in Jilin west plain (in Chinese with English abstract). J Changchun Univ Sci Technol 29(4):355–358Google Scholar
  62. Zhang DF, Wang SJ (2001) Mechanism of freeze-thaw action in the process of soil salinization in northeast China. Environ Geol 41(1–2):96–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhang DF, Wang SJ (2002) Study on the eco-geo-environment of land salinization in West Jilin Province (in Chinese). Chin J Soil Sci 33(2):90–93Google Scholar
  64. Zhang GX, Deng W, He Y, Salama R (2006) Hydrochemical characteristics and evolution laws of groundwater (in Chinese with English abstract). Adv Water Sci 17(1):20–28Google Scholar
  65. Zhao YL, Ye ZS, Cui GW (2004) Sustainable use and development of grassland in the Songnen Plain (in Chinese). Heilongjiang Ani Sci Vet Med 8:56–57Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Li Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Katsutoshi Seki
    • 2
    • 3
  • T. Miyazaki
    • 2
  • Y. Ishihama
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming in the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water ConservationNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Business AdministrationToyo UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations