Paddy and Water Environment

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 257–262 | Cite as

Assessment of the water quality of two rivers in Hanoi City and its suitability for irrigation water

  • Nguyen Thi Lan HuongEmail author
  • Masami Ohtsubo
  • Loretta Li
  • Takahiro Higashi
  • Motohei Kanayama


The To Lich and Kim Nguu Rivers in Hanoi City are the main sources of irrigation water for suburban agricultural land and fish farm. Wastewater from the industrial plants located along these rivers has been discharged, and has degraded the water quality of the rivers. This study describes the chemical properties of water from the rivers, focusing on heavy metal pollution and the suitability of water quality for irrigation water. Water from the rivers was heavily polluted with organic matter and heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd and Ni. Dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen deman, and total suspended solids, and the concentrations of all heavy metals exceeded the Vietnamese standard for surface water quality in all investigated sites. The concentrations of some heavy metals such as Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni were above the internationally recommended WHO maximum level for irrigation water. A wide variation in the heavy metal concentration of water due to metal types is the result of wastewater discharged from different industrial sources.


Heavy metals Stream water Irrigation Industry 



The assistance of A. Nakano in conducting the laboratory tests is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nguyen Thi Lan Huong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masami Ohtsubo
    • 1
  • Loretta Li
    • 2
  • Takahiro Higashi
    • 1
  • Motohei Kanayama
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Bioproduction and Environmental Science, Faculty of AgricultureKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringThe University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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