Mass balance analysis in Korean paddy rice culture
A field experimental study was performed during the growing season of 2001 to evaluate water and nutrient balances in paddy rice culture. Three plots of standard fertilization (SF), excessive fertilization (EF, 150% of SF), and reduced fertilization (RF, 70% of SF) were used and the size of treatment plot was 3,000 m2, respectively. The hydrologic and water quality was field monitored throughout the crop stages. The water balance analyses indicated that approximately half (47–54%) of the total outflow was lost through surface drainage, with the remainder consumed by evapotranspiration. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant effect of fertilization rates on nutrient outflow through the surface drainage or rice yield. Reducing fertilization of rice paddy may not work well to mitigate the non-point source nutrient loading in the range of normal farming practices. Instead, the reduction in surface drainage could be important to controlling the loading. Suggestive measures that may be applicable to reduce surface drainage and nutrient losses include water-saving irrigation by reducing ponded water depth, raising the weir height in diked rice fields, and minimizing forced surface drainage as recommended by other researchers. The suggested practices can cause some deviations from conventional farming practices, and further investigations are recommended.
KeywordsPaddy field Rice culture Nutrient loading Surface drainage Fertilization
The study was supported by a grant (code number 4–5-1) from the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center of 21st Century Frontier Research Program.
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