Paddy and Water Environment

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 99–106 | Cite as

Mass balance analysis in Korean paddy rice culture

Article

Abstract

A field experimental study was performed during the growing season of 2001 to evaluate water and nutrient balances in paddy rice culture. Three plots of standard fertilization (SF), excessive fertilization (EF, 150% of SF), and reduced fertilization (RF, 70% of SF) were used and the size of treatment plot was 3,000 m2, respectively. The hydrologic and water quality was field monitored throughout the crop stages. The water balance analyses indicated that approximately half (47–54%) of the total outflow was lost through surface drainage, with the remainder consumed by evapotranspiration. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant effect of fertilization rates on nutrient outflow through the surface drainage or rice yield. Reducing fertilization of rice paddy may not work well to mitigate the non-point source nutrient loading in the range of normal farming practices. Instead, the reduction in surface drainage could be important to controlling the loading. Suggestive measures that may be applicable to reduce surface drainage and nutrient losses include water-saving irrigation by reducing ponded water depth, raising the weir height in diked rice fields, and minimizing forced surface drainage as recommended by other researchers. The suggested practices can cause some deviations from conventional farming practices, and further investigations are recommended.

Keywords

Paddy field Rice culture Nutrient loading Surface drainage Fertilization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by a grant (code number 4–5-1) from the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center of 21st Century Frontier Research Program.

References

  1. Allen SE, Grimshaw HM, Rowland AP (1986) Chemical analysis. In: Moore PD, Chapman SB (eds) Methods in plant ecology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 285–344Google Scholar
  2. American Public Health Association (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th edn. APHA, Washington, DC, pp 99–153Google Scholar
  3. American Society of Agronomy, and Soil Science Society of America (1982) Methods of soil analysis, part 2: chemical and microbiological properties, 2nd edn. ASA and SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, pp 403–430, 581–624Google Scholar
  4. Bouman BAM, Tuong TP (2001) Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigated lowland rice. Agric Water Manage 49:11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cabangon RJ, Tuong TP, Abdullah NB (2002) Comparing water input and water productivity of transplanted and direct-seed rice production systems. Agric Water Manage 57:11–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Counce PA, Keisling TC, Mitchell AJ (2000) A uniform objective and adaptive system for expressing rice development. Crop Sci 40:436–443Google Scholar
  7. De Datta SK, Abilay WP, Kalwar GN (1973) Water stress effects in flooded tropical rice. In: Water management in Philippine irrigation systems: research and operations. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines, pp 19–36Google Scholar
  8. Eom KC (2001) Environmentally beneficial function of rice culture and paddy soil. In: Rice culture in Asia. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, and Korean National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage, Korea, pp 28–35Google Scholar
  9. Hillel D (1998) Environmental soil physics. Academic Press, New York, pp 602–607Google Scholar
  10. Hukkeri SB, Sharma AK (1980) Water-use efficiency of transplanted and direct-sown rice under different water management practices. Indian J Agric Sci 50:240–243Google Scholar
  11. Lee BW (2001) Rice cultural practices in Asia. In: Rice culture In Asia. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, and Korean National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage, Korea, pp 36–54Google Scholar
  12. Mishra A, Ghorai AK, Singh SR (1998) Rainwater, soil and nutrient conservation in rainfed rice lands in eastern India. Agric Water Manage 38:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Udo A, Jiku F, Okubo T, Nakamura M (2000) Mass balances of water and nutrients in a paddy field (in Japanese). J Jpn Soc Water Environ 23(5):298–304Google Scholar
  14. Yoon CG, Kwun SK, Ham JH (2001) Effects of treated sewage irrigation on paddy rice culture and its soil. Irrig Drain 50:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Yoon KS, Han KH, Cho JY, Choi CH, Son JG, Choi JK (2002) Water and nutrient balance of paddy field irrigated from a pumping station during cropping period (in Korean). J Korean Soc Rural Plan 8(1):15–25Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rural Engineering DepartmentKonkuk UniversityKwangjin-guKorea
  2. 2.Graduate Program, Rural Engineering DepartmentKonkuk UniversityKwangjin-guKorea

Personalised recommendations