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Primates

pp 1–10 | Cite as

Elephant behavior toward the dead: A review and insights from field observations

  • Shifra Z. GoldenbergEmail author
  • George Wittemyer
Special Feature: Original Article Responses to Death and Dying: Primates and Other Mammals

Abstract

Many nonhuman animals have been documented to take an interest in their dead. A few socially complex and cognitively advanced taxa—primates, cetaceans, and proboscideans—stand out for the range and duration of behaviors that they display at conspecific carcasses. Here, we review the literature on field observations of elephants at carcasses to identify patterns in behaviors exhibited. We add to this literature by describing elephant responses to dead elephants in the Samburu National Reserve, northern Kenya. The literature review indicated that behavior of elephants at carcasses most often included approaches, touching, and investigative responses, and these occurred at varying stages of decay, from fresh carcasses to scattered and sun-bleached bones. During our own observations, we also witnessed elephants visiting and revisiting carcasses during which they engaged in extensive investigative behavior, stationary behavior, self-directed behavior, temporal gland streaming, and heightened social interactions with other elephants in the vicinity of a carcass. Elephants show broad interest in their dead regardless of the strength of former relationships with the dead individual. Such behaviors may allow them to update information regarding their social context in this highly fluid fission–fusion society. The apparent emotionality and widely reported inter-individual differences involved in elephant responses to the dead deserve further study. Our research contributes to the growing discipline of comparative thanatology to illuminate the cognition and context of nonhuman animal response to death, particularly among socially complex species.

Keywords

Cognition Death and dying Evolutionary thanatology Loxodonta africana Loxodonta cyclotis Social complexity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Kenyan Office of the President of the Republic of Kenya, the Samburu and Isiolo governments, and the Kenya Wildlife Service for permission to conduct research in Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves. Jerenimo Leperei assisted with data collection. The project was funded by Save the Elephants, the National Science Foundation GRFP (#DGE-1321845), and the Graduate Degree Program in Ecology and Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (MTS 187638 kb)

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Conservation Ecology CenterSmithsonian Conservation Biology InstituteFront RoyalUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Conservation ResearchSan Diego Zoo GlobalEscondidoUSA
  3. 3.Save the ElephantsNairobiKenya
  4. 4.Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation BiologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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