When carrying objects, nonhuman primates often show bipedal locomotion. Studies of primate bipedality, however, in both nature and captivity, have concentrated on locomotion on horizontal substrates, either terrestrially or arboreally. No observational or experimental study seems to have looked at non-horizontal bipedality, yet we show here that it occurs often in nature in Sapajus libidinosus, the bearded capuchin monkey. The context is transport of small food items from source to site of consumption, in which the monkeys usually carry handfuls of maize kernels over several meters’ distance, both on the ground and in the trees. Most impressively, over a fifth of such bouts are done vertically, when the tree trunk is fully upright. Such vertical bipedality, with or without transport, apparently has not been reported before.
Cebus libidinosusSapajus libidinosusBipedality Transport Locomotion
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
We thank: FUMDHAM for logistical support, ICMBio/IBAMA for authorization to work in the National Park, and George Reinaldo for helping with data collection. The following grants were obtained: #2013/05219-0 (TF), #2014/04818-0 (EBO), São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP); CNPq (443309/2014-0; PQ—EBO). At time of writing TF was partially funded by the ERC grant #283959 (PRIMARCH). The research was observational only and complied with protocols approved by the Animal Research Ethical Committee of the Institute of Psychology, University of Sao Paulo, and fully adhered to Brazilian law (authorization IBAMA/ICMBio—37615-2).
Supplementary material 1Online Resource 1 Video of pedality variation of wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) during transport of food. Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí, Brazil.(MP4 33,642 kb)
Albrecht H, Dunnett SC (1971) Chimpanzees in West Africa. Piper, MunichGoogle Scholar
Berillon G, Daver G, D’Août K et al (2010) Bipedal versus quadrupedal hind limb and foot kinematics in a captive sample of Papio anubis: setup and preliminary results. Int J Primatol 31:159–180. doi:10.1007/s10764-010-9398-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Demes B, O’Neill MC (2013) Ground reaction forces and center of mass mechanics of bipedal capuchin monkeys: implications for the evolution of human bipedalism. Am J Phys Anthropol 150:76–86. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Fleagle JG, Stern JT, Jungers WL et al (1981) Climbing: a biomechanical link with brachiation and with bipedalism. In: Day MH (ed) Vertebrate locomotion. Symp Zool Soc Lond, London, pp 359–375Google Scholar
Fragaszy DM, Visalberghi E, Fedigan LM (2004) The complete capuchin: the biology of the genus Cebus. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
Kano T (1992) The last ape: pygmy chimpanzee behavior and ecology. Stanford University Press, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
Lambert JE (2005) Competition, predation, and the evolutionary significance of the cercopithecine cheek pouch: the case of Cercopithecus and Lophocebus. Am J Phys Anthropol 126:183–192. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Mannu M, Ottoni EB (2009) The enhanced tool-kit of two groups of wild bearded capuchin monkeys in the Caatinga: tool making, associative use, and secondary tools. Am J Primatol 71:242–251. doi:10.1002/ajp.20642CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Martin P, Bateson P (2007) Measuring behaviour: an introductory guide, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massaro L, Liu Q, Visalberghi E, Fragaszy DM (2012) Wild bearded capuchin (Sapajus libidinosus) select hammer tools on the basis of both stone mass and distance from the anvil. Anim Cognit 15:1065–1074. doi:10.1007/s10071-012-0530-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Visalberghi E, Albani A, Ventricelli M et al (2016) Factors affecting cashew processing by wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus, Kerr 1792). Am J Primatol. doi:10.1002/ajp.22545PubMedGoogle Scholar