, Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 309–315 | Cite as

Behavioral responses to injury and death in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

  • Liz A. D. Campbell
  • Patrick J. TkaczynskiEmail author
  • Mohamed Mouna
  • Mohamed Qarro
  • James Waterman
  • Bonaventura Majolo
News and Perspectives


The wounding or death of a conspecific has been shown to elicit varied behavioral responses throughout thanatology. Recently, a number of reports have presented contentious evidence of epimeletic behavior towards the dying and dead among non-human animals, a behavioral trait previously considered uniquely human. Here, we report on the behavioral responses of Barbary macaques, a social, non-human primate, to the deaths of four group members (one high-ranking adult female, one high-ranking adult male, one juvenile male, and one female infant), all caused by road traffic accidents. Responses appeared to vary based on the nature of the death (protracted or instant) and the age class of the deceased. Responses included several behaviors with potential adaptive explanations or consequences. These included exploration, caretaking (guarding, carrying, and grooming), and proximity to wounded individuals or corpses, and immediate as well as longer-lasting distress behaviors from other group members following death, all of which have been reported in other non-human primate species. These observations add to a growing body of comparative evolutionary analysis of primate thanatology and help to highlight the multifaceted impacts of human-induced fatalities on an endangered and socially complex primate.


Thanatology Barbary macaque Epimeletic behavior 



We thank Ifrane National Park, the Haut Commissariat aux Eaux et Forêts et à la Lutte Contre la Désertification, Ecole Nationale Forestiere d’Ingeniuers and Institut Scientifique de Rabat for research permission and facilitation. We thank Melanie LaCava, Kevin Remeuf, Selma El Fassi-Fihri and Els van Laverien for their contribution to incident reporting, photography and filming. We thank Alice Marks and Selma El Fassi-Fihri for efforts collecting data on the dominance hierarchies. Finally, we thank Dr Caroline Ross, Dr Julia Lehmann and Prof Ann MacLarnon for their comments in the writing of this manuscript.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 42 kb)

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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liz A. D. Campbell
    • 1
  • Patrick J. Tkaczynski
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohamed Mouna
    • 3
  • Mohamed Qarro
    • 4
  • James Waterman
    • 1
  • Bonaventura Majolo
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of LincolnLincolnUK
  2. 2.Department of Life Sciences, Centre for Research in Evolutionary and Environmental AnthropologyUniversity of RoehamptonLondonUK
  3. 3.Institut ScientifiqueMohammed V UniversityRabatMorocco
  4. 4.Ecole Nationale Forestiére d´IngenieursSaléMorocco

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