, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 37–44 | Cite as

Population genetics of the California National Primate Research Center’s (CNPRC) captive Callicebus cupreus colony

  • Adrian Mendoza
  • Jillian Ng
  • Karen L. Bales
  • Sally P. Mendoza
  • Debra A. George
  • David Glenn Smith
  • Sree KanthaswamyEmail author
Original Article


The California National Primate Research Center maintains a small colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) for behavioral studies. While short tandem repeat (STR) markers are critical for the genetic management of the center’s rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) breeding colony, STRs are not used for this purpose in the maintenance of the center’s titi monkey colony. Consequently, the genetic structure of this titi monkey population has not been characterized. A lack of highly informative genetic markers in titi monkeys has also resulted in scant knowledge of the species’ genetic variation in the wild. The purpose of this study was to develop a panel of highly polymorphic titi monkey STRs using a cross-species polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification protocol that could be used for the genetic management of the titi monkey colony. We screened 16 STR primer pairs and selected those that generated robust and reproducible polymorphic amplicons. Loci that were found to be highly polymorphic, very likely to be useful for parentage verification, pedigree assessment, and studying titi monkey population genetics, were validated using Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium analyses. The genetic data generated in this study were also used to assess directly the impact on the colony’s genetic diversity of a recent adenovirus outbreak. While the adenovirus epizootic disease caused significant mortality (19 deaths among the 65 colony animals), our results suggest that the disease exhibited little or no influence on the overall genetic diversity of the colony.


Genetic management Population genetic structure Captive populations Closed colony Paternity Cross-species amplification Red or coppery titi monkey 



This study was supported by the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) base Grant (OD000169-48), as well as grants from the Good Nature Institute to KB (HD053555 and HD071998). This research adhered to the American Society of Primatologists’ principles for the ethical treatment of primates. Animals used in this research were managed in compliance with Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) regulations or in accordance with the National Institutes of Health guidelines or the US Department of Agriculture regulations prescribing the humane care and use of laboratory animals. The University of California, Davis, and the California National Primate Research Center are AAALAC accredited. The authors are very grateful to the reviewers for their thorough and insightful comments, which considerably improved the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian Mendoza
    • 1
  • Jillian Ng
    • 2
  • Karen L. Bales
    • 3
    • 4
  • Sally P. Mendoza
    • 3
    • 4
  • Debra A. George
    • 2
  • David Glenn Smith
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Sree Kanthaswamy
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.University of California Graduate Program in Forensic ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  4. 4.California National Primate Research CenterUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  5. 5.Department of Environmental ToxicologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  6. 6.DavisUSA

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