, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 25–34

Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

  • Michael A. Schillaci
  • J. Margaret Castellini
  • Craig A. Stricker
  • Lisa Jones-Engel
  • Benjamin P. Y.-H. Lee
  • Todd M. O’Hara
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10329-013-0361-7

Cite this article as:
Schillaci, M.A., Castellini, J.M., Stricker, C.A. et al. Primates (2014) 55: 25. doi:10.1007/s10329-013-0361-7


Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.


Stable isotopes δ13δ15Primates Macaques Macaca fascicularis Singapore 

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. Schillaci
    • 1
  • J. Margaret Castellini
    • 2
  • Craig A. Stricker
    • 3
  • Lisa Jones-Engel
    • 4
  • Benjamin P. Y.-H. Lee
    • 5
    • 6
  • Todd M. O’Hara
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Toronto ScarboroughTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Institute of Marine Science, School of Fisheries and Ocean SciencesUniversity of Alaska FairbanksFairbanksUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Geological SurveyFort Collins Science CenterDenverUSA
  4. 4.National Primate Research CenterUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  5. 5.Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and ConservationUniversity of KentCanterburyUK
  6. 6.Conservation DivisionNational Parks BoardSingaporeSingapore
  7. 7.Department of Biology and Wildlife, Institute of Arctic BiologyUniversity of Alaska FairbanksFairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations