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Primates

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 73–80 | Cite as

Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) exhibit sleep related behaviors that minimize exposure to parasitic arthropods? A preliminary report on the possible anti-vector function of chimpanzee sleeping platforms

  • David R. Samson
  • Michael P. Muehlenbein
  • Kevin D. Hunt
Original Article

Abstract

Great apes spend half of their lives in a nightly “nest” or sleeping platform (SP), a complex object created by modifying foliage, which functions as a stable substrate on which to sleep. Of the several purported functions of SPs, one hypothesis is that they protect against parasitic infection. Here we investigate the role of SP site choice in avoiding molestation by arthropods. This study presents preliminary data on the insect-repellent properties of preferred sleeping tree species Cynometra alexandri. Insect traps were deployed in gallery forest habitats in which chimpanzees typically “nest.” We compared traps placed adjacent to SPs artificially manufactured with C. alexandri trees to an open area within the same habitat. Multiple measures of arthropod counts indicate that simulated C. alexandri SP sites have fewer arthropods than similar non-SP sites. Volatile compounds secreted by C. alexandri foliage are hypothesized to repel annoying arthropods and/or mask chimpanzee olfactory signals. Of the total insects captured (n = 6,318), n = 145 were mosquitoes. Of the total mosquitoes captured, n = 47 were identified as Anopheles (female, n = 12). The prominent malarial vector Anopheles gambiae was identified among the captured mosquito sample. These results suggest that the presence of broken branches of the tree species C. alexandri reduce the amount of insects a chimpanzee is exposed to throughout a night’s sleep. This great ape behavioral and socio-technological adaptation may have evolved, in part, to increase quality of sleep as well as decrease exposure to vectors of disease.

Keywords

Chimpanzees Nest Pathogen Mosquito Cynometra alexandri 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Permission to conduct this research was granted by the Uganda National Research Council and the Uganda Wildlife Authority. The Indiana Statistical Consulting Center, Stephanie Dickinson, Holly Green, Cari Lewis, TSWR Warden Chris Oryema, Chief Warden Charles Tumwesigye, Keith Hoskin, Nadia Strydom and staff at the Semliki Wildlife Reserve provided valuable support. We gratefully acknowledge Ephantus Muturi of the Illinois Natural History Survey for mosquito identification. We thank two anonymous reviewers for providing thoughtful feedback on the submitted manuscript. Financial support was provided by the National Science Foundation (SGER BNS 97-11124 and BCS 98-15991) and Indiana University (Faculty Research Support Program and the College of Arts and Sciences).

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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Samson
    • 1
  • Michael P. Muehlenbein
    • 1
  • Kevin D. Hunt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

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