, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 227–231 | Cite as

Clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) predation on proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia

  • Ikki MatsudaEmail author
  • Augustine Tuuga
  • Seigo Higashi
Short communication


In this study, we have reported two direct observations of individuals from a one-male group of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) being killed by clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) in the riverine forest along the Menanggul river, a tributary of the Kinabatangan river in Sabah, Malaysia. One of the two individuals was an infant female and the other was a juvenile female. Based on literature reviews and the observations reported here, we suggest that clouded leopard and crocodile might be significant potential predators of proboscis monkeys of any age or sex and that predation threats elicit the monkeys’ anti-predator strategies. Moreover, the observations of the monkeys’ behaviour when the group is attacked by a predator suggest that the adult males in one-male groups play an important role as protectors.


Predation Proboscis monkey Clouded leopard Behaviour 



We express our sincere thanks to the Economic Planning Unit of the Malaysian Government, especially M. Bt. A. Manan and G. Vu, for permission to conduct our research in Malaysia. We particularly thank the staff of the Sabah Wildlife Department for their permission to conduct our research in Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary. We are grateful to I. Lackman-Ancrenaz, M. Ancrenaz, Z.A. Jaffer, A.B. Etin and all members of the Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Project for their help. We thank our research assistants, especially A. Bin Arsih and M.S. Bin A. Karim, for their support. We thank H. Katsuta and R. Delatorre for proofreading this manuscript, and we are certainly indebted to Y. Katsuta who helped us overcome many difficulties throughout our study. Finally, we are grateful to anonymous reviewers for their fruitful comments that improved this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Environmental Earth ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Sabah Wildlife DepartmentWisma MUISKota KinabaluMalaysia

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