Primates

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 116–125 | Cite as

Food conditions, competitive regime, and female social relationships in Japanese macaques: within-population variation on Yakushima

  • Goro Hanya
  • Miki Matsubara
  • Shuhei Hayaishi
  • Koichiro Zamma
  • Shinichi Yoshihiro
  • Masahiro M. Kanaoka
  • Shuji Sugaya
  • Mieko Kiyono
  • Makiko Nagai
  • Yosuke Tsuriya
  • Sachiko Hayakawa
  • Mariko Suzuki
  • Takashi Yokota
  • Daisuke Kondo
  • Yukio Takahata
Original Article

Abstract

Feeding conditions, competitive regime, and female social relationships of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on Yakushima were compared between the two habitats at two different altitudes (coniferous forest, 1,000–1,200 m and coastal forest, 0–200 m). Fruit availability was higher in the coastal forest. There was no consistent difference in the frequency of agonistic interactions within a group during feeding between the two habitats. The coastal forest evoked stronger inter-group contest competition compared to the coniferous forest as evidenced by a higher inter-group encounter rate and a higher proportion of aggressive encounters to non-aggressive ones. Birth rate was higher in larger groups compared to smaller ones in the coastal forest, but did not differ in the coniferous forest. In spite of these differences in competitive regime, no variation in female social relationships was observed, such as direction and concentration on particular individuals in grooming, linearity in dominance rank, counter-attack, and support of juvenile kin during agonistic interactions. The present results indicate that the female social relationships of Japanese macaques are robust and do not change according to changes in the current environment.

Keywords

Socioecology Feeding competition Within-group contests Between-group contests 

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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Goro Hanya
    • 1
  • Miki Matsubara
    • 1
  • Shuhei Hayaishi
    • 2
  • Koichiro Zamma
    • 3
  • Shinichi Yoshihiro
    • 4
  • Masahiro M. Kanaoka
    • 5
  • Shuji Sugaya
    • 6
  • Mieko Kiyono
    • 5
  • Makiko Nagai
    • 7
  • Yosuke Tsuriya
    • 8
  • Sachiko Hayakawa
    • 1
  • Mariko Suzuki
    • 1
  • Takashi Yokota
    • 9
  • Daisuke Kondo
    • 10
  • Yukio Takahata
    • 11
  1. 1.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityInuyamaJapan
  2. 2.University of RyukyusOkinawaJapan
  3. 3.Japan Monkey CentreInuyamaJapan
  4. 4.Ryukoku UniversityKyotoJapan
  5. 5.Graduate School of ScienceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  6. 6.HigashinoKasugaiJapan
  7. 7.Yokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan
  8. 8.Nihon UniversityFujisawaJapan
  9. 9.Graduate School of InformaticsKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  10. 10.Gifu UniversityGifuJapan
  11. 11.Kwansei-gakuin UniversitySandaJapan

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