, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 230–238 | Cite as

Spatial distribution of primates in a mosaic of colonizing and old growth forest at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda

Original Article


Primate censuses were conducted in a mosaic of colonizing (two locations) and old-growth forests using line transect methods at the Ngogo study site, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) were encountered more frequently in the colonizing forests than in the old growth forest, while chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were encountered more frequently in the old growth forest than in colonizing forests. Although not significant, results suggest that blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) frequented colonizing forests more often than old growth forest. The encounter rates of mangabey (Lophocebus albigena), and redtail (Cercopithecus ascanius) groups were ambiguous with their density being higher in some colonizing forests but not others as compared to old-growth forest. No significant differences were detected for baboons (Papio anubis), L’hoest’s (Cercopithecus lhoesti), and red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus tephroscales). The conversion of forests to farmland is one of the major problems encountered in primate conservation. This study shows that secondary forests replacing anthropogenic grasslands have the potential of supporting some primate species such as black and white colobus, redtail monkeys, and possibly blue monkeys. Therefore, such areas should not be given up but should be conserved for the benefit of primates that can survive in secondary forests; as the forests mature further, primate species that are adapted to old growth forest will colonize the area provided there is a nearby source.


Censuses Conservation Primates Tropical forest 


  1. Brugiere D, Fleury M-C (2000) Estimating primate densities using home range and line transect methods: a comparative test with the black colobus monkey Colobus satanas. Primates 4:373–382Google Scholar
  2. Butynski TM (1990) Comparative ecology of blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in high- and low-density subpopulations. Ecol Monogr 60:1–26Google Scholar
  3. Chapman CA (1989) Primate seed dispersal: the fate of dispersed seeds. Biotropica 2:148–154Google Scholar
  4. Chapman CA (1995) Primate seed dispersal: coevolution and conservation implications. Evol Anthropol 4:74–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chapman A, Balcomb SR, Gillespie TR, Skorupa JP, Struhsaker TT (2000) Long-term effects of logging on African primate communities: a 28-year comparison from Kibale National Park, Uganda. Conser Biol 14:207–217Google Scholar
  6. Chapman CA, Chapman LJ, Bjorndal KA, Onderdonk DA (2002) Application of protein-to-fiber ratios to predict colobine abundance on different spatial scales. Int J Primatol 23:283–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman CA, Peres CA (2001) Primate conservation in the new millennium: the role of scientists. Evol Anthropol 10:16–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dew JL, Wright P (1998) Frugivory and seed dispersal by four species of primates in Madagascar’s eastern rain forest. Biotropica 30:425–437Google Scholar
  9. Glenn ME, Matsuda R, Besen KJ (2002) Unique behavior of the mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona): all-male groups and copulation calls. In: Glenn M, Cords M (eds) The guenons: diversity and adaptation in African monkeys. Kluwer/Plenum, New York, pp 133–145Google Scholar
  10. Caughley G (1980) Analysis of vertebrate populations. Wiley, NYGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghiglieri M (1984) The Chimpanzees of Kibale Forest. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Haltenorth T, Diller H (1994) Collins field guide: mammals of Africa including Madagascar. Harper Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Hart JA, Katembo M, Punga K (1996) Diet, prey selection and ecological relations of leopard and golden cat in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Afr J Ecol 34:364–379Google Scholar
  14. Kasenene JM (1987) The influence of mechanized selective logging, felling intensity, and gap-size on the regeneration of a tropical moist forest in the Kibale Forest Reserve, Uganda. PhD. Dissertation, Michigan State University, East LansingGoogle Scholar
  15. Lawes MJ (2002) Conservation of fragmented populations of Cercopithecus mitis in South Africa: the role of reintroduction, corridors and metapopulation ecology. In: Glenn M, Cords M (eds) The Guenons: Diversity and adaptation in African monkeys. Kluwer/Plenum, New York, pp 375–392Google Scholar
  16. Mitani JC, Sanders WJ, Lwanga JS, Windfelder TL (2001) Predatory behavior of crowned hawk-eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 49:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mitani JC, Struhsaker TT, Lwanga JS (2000) Primate community dynamics in old growth forest over 23.5 years at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda: implications for conservation and census methods. Int J Primatol 21:269–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mitani JC, Watts DP (2001) Why do chimpanzees hunt and share meet? Anim Behav 61:915–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mitani JC, Watts DP, Lwanga JS (2002) Ecological and social correlates of chimpanzee party size and composition. In: Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant LF (eds) Behavioural diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 102–111Google Scholar
  20. National Research Council (1981) Techniques for the study of primate population Ecology. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  21. Norton-Griffiths M (1978) Counting animals. African Wildlife Foundation, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  22. Nummelin M (1989) Seasonality and effects of forestry practices on forest floor arthropods in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Fauna Norv Ser B 36:17–25Google Scholar
  23. Oates JF (1974) The ecology and behaviour of the black- and -white Colobus monkey (Colobus guereza Ruppell) in East Africa. PhD thesis, University of LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Plumptre AJ, Cox D, Mugume S (2003) The status of chimpanzees in Uganda. Albertine Rift technical report. Series No 2. Wildlife Conservation SocietyGoogle Scholar
  25. Siegel S, Castellan NJ (1988) Nonparametric statistics for behavioral sciences. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Skorupa JP (1986) Responses of rainforest primates to selective logging in Kibale Forest, Uganda: a summary report. In: Benirschke K (eds) Primates: the road to self-sustaining populations. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg, pp 57–70Google Scholar
  27. Skorupa JI (1988) The effects of selective timber harvesting on rain-forest primates in Kibale Forest, Uganda. PhD. Dissertation, University of California, DavisGoogle Scholar
  28. Skorupa J (1989) Crowned eagles Stephanoaetus coronatus in rainforest: observations of breeding chronology and diet at a nest in Uganda. Ibis 131:294–298Google Scholar
  29. Struhsaker TT (1978) Food habits of five monkey species in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. In: Chivers DJ, Herbert J (eds) Recent advances in primatology, vol 1. Behaviour. Academic, London, pp 225–247Google Scholar
  30. Struhsaker TT (1997) Ecology of an African rain forest. University Press of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  31. Struhsaker TT, Leakey M (1990) Prey selectivity by crowned hawk-eagles on monkeys in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 26:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Struhsaker TT, Leland L (1988) Group fission in redtail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. In: Gautier-Hion A, Bourliere F, Gautier J-P, Kingdon J (eds) A primate radiation: evolutionary biology of the African guenons. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 364–388Google Scholar
  33. Teelen S (2005) The Impact of Hunting by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) on demography and behavior of red Colobus monkeys (Procolobus ruformitratus) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. PhD. Dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.Google Scholar
  34. Uganda Government (1965) Maps of Fort Portal and Kahunge, Series Y 732, 3rd edn. U.S.D. Department of lands and survey, Entebbe, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  35. Weber W (1993) Primate conservation and ecotourism in Africa. In: Potter CS, Cohen JI, Janezewski D (eds) Perspective on biodiversity: case studies of genetic resource conservation and development. AAAS Press, Washington DC, pp 129–150Google Scholar
  36. Whitesides GH, Oates JF, Green SM, Kluberdanz RP (1988) Estimating primate densities from transects in a West African rain forest: a comparison of techniques. J Amin Ecol 57:345–367Google Scholar
  37. Whitmore TC (1998) An introduction to tropical rain forests. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  38. Wing LD, Buss IO (1970) Elephants and forests. Wildl Monogr 19Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fort PortalUganda
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations