, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 191–197 | Cite as

Affiliative relations among male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) within and outside a troop on Yakushima Island

  • Shiro Horiuchi
Original Article


Male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) in a troop on Yakushima Island frequently groom other males. However, previous studies have not compared the social relations of troop males to those of non-troop males. I followed all troop males and non-troop males in and near a troop during a mating season and during the following non-mating season and recorded their neighbors, grooming, and agonistic interactions. Comparisons of the social relations of troop males and non-troop males with other troop members revealed that grooming and agonistic interactions with females during the mating season were similar between troop and non-troop males. However, troop males groomed each other more often and had fewer agonistic interactions among themselves than did non-troop males. Compared to what occurred in the mating season, troop males groomed females less often and exchanged grooming bouts more often with other troop males during the non-mating season. One non-troop male groomed females more frequently than did any troop male in both seasons, and this male groomed troop males more frequently than did any troop male in the non-mating season. This male immigrated into the troop during the following mating season. Regardless of their competition with respect to reproduction, male Japanese macaques on Yakushima Island maintain affiliative relations, probably to cooperatively defend fertile females from non-troop males.


Affiliative relation Japanese macaques Yakushima Troop male Non-troop male 



I thank my friends in Yakushima for their hospitality during my stay there. The Yakushima Forest Office permitted me to conduct the fieldwork. I thank T. Nishida, J. Yamagiwa, S. Suzuki, and other members of Laboratory of Human Evolutionary Studies, Kyoto University, for their valuable advice and discussion. I thank G. Hanya, S. Hayaishi, S. Hayakawa, M. Itoh, H. Koda, H. Kudo, T. Teramura, R. Tsujino, P. Winn-Brown, and T. Yamamoto for their help during the fieldwork. I thank Y. Takenoshita and A. Matsumoto-Oda for carefully reading early drafts and for their critical comments. I thank E. Inoue for helping with some of the statistics. I also thank T. Furuichi and an anonymous referee for improving my manuscript. The Field Research Center of the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, offered me excellent facilities. This research was financially supported by the MEXT Grant-in-Aid for the 21st COE Biodiversity Program (A14).


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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Human Evolution StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Division of Behavioral Science, Faculty of Arts and LettersTohoku UniversityKawauchi, Aoba-kuJapan

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