, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 115–119 | Cite as

The distribution pattern of rhesus and Assamese monkeys in Nepal

  • Kazuo Wada
Original Article


Surveys of the distribution and some ecological characteristics of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Assamese monkeys (M. assamensis) in Nepal were conducted during 234 days in 1976, 1978, and 1984. Rhesus monkeys dominated in the tropical, subtropical, and temperate forests below 3,000 m a.s.l. all over Nepal. Assamese monkeys were patchily distributed along rivers in the tropical and subtropical areas. Both species principally utilized forests parapatrically. The mean troop size of rhesus monkeys (29.5) was significantly larger than that of Assamese monkeys (19.1). Discontinuous distribution of Assamese monkeys probably appeared as a result of the expansion of rhesus monkey distribution in the mid- and late-Pleistocene. Because of small distribution areas and small numbers of monkeys, urgent conservation policy must be pursued.


Rhesus monkey Assamese monkey Distribution pattern Parapatry Nepal 



Survey activity was financed by the MEXT grants for scientific research in 1976, 1977 and 1984. In Nepal, I am deeply obliged to the generous help and advice of S. B. Malla, former director of the Department of Medicinal Plants, Ministry of Forest, Nepal; K. R. Rajbhandari; and the staff of the same department. J. P. Lama Sherpa, Lopsan, and many friends in Nepal kindly arranged comfortable camping throughout the entire trek. H. Tabata, former associate professor of the Center for Ecological Research of Kyoto University; K. Tsuchiya, associate professor of Ryukoku University; and Y. Konno, assistant professor of Department of Agro-Environmental Science, Faculty of Husbandry, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, identified monkey food samples and performed co-operative studies with me in the field. M. K. Chalise, Natural History Society of Nepal, provided me much information in Nepal. Y. Kawamoto encouraged and advised me in the discussion of monkey distribution. N. Nakagawa of Kobe City College of Nursing, H. Ogawa of Chukyo University and two anonymous reviewers made careful revisions of my manuscript. To all these people, I express my sincere thanks.


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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyNorth-West UniversityChina
  2. 2.InuyamaJapan

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