Stimulation of defense reactions in potato against Pectobacterium sp.

  • Said Hachoud
  • Raul Sanchez-Muñoz
  • Rosa M. CusidoEmail author
  • Javier Palazon
  • Rachida Yahaoui Zaidi
  • Farid Zaidi
Host Responses


The pesticides used to tackle potato pathogens, including bacteria, are environmentally damaging, so more sustainable treatments are needed. Because plant defense-related hormones such as methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and the elicitor chitosan can stimulate plant defense systems, the effect of these compounds was tested by adding them to a watering solution 2 days before inoculating two S. tuberosum cultivars with either Pectobacterium carotovorum strain 5890 or P. atrosepticum strain 889. Growth and the production of several defense phenolic compounds were determined in treated and untreated plants, inoculated or not. P. carotovorum 5890 was more virulent than P. atrosepticum 5889 as reflected by higher levels of phenolic compounds in the plants. The defense-related hormone salicylic acid offered the most protection against the bacteria without interfering with plant growth. Because plants produce and accumulate secondary metabolites for protection against infection, higher production was accompanied by less pathogen damage and higher resistance.


Potato plant Solanum tuberosum Pectobacterium sp. Salicylic acid Methyl jasmonate Chitosan Plant defense Phenolic compounds Plant growth Plant signaling 



Work in the Plant Physiology Laboratory (University of Barcelona) was financially supported by the Spanish MEC (BIO2017-82374-R) and the Generalitat de Catalunya (2017SGR242). Said Hachoud thanks the Rector of the University of Bejaia, Mr. Saidani, and the Dean of the Faculty of Science of Nature and Life for funding his PhD thesis stay at the University of Barcelona.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10327_2019_843_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Table S1. Correlation matrix between phenolic compounds and growth in cultivar Red Pontiac (DOCX 16 KB)
10327_2019_843_MOESM2_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Table S2. Correlation matrix between phenolic compounds and growth in potato cultivar Agata (DOCX 19 KB)


  1. Baenas N, Garcia-Viguera C, Moreno DA (2014) Elicitation: a tool for enriching the bioactive composition of foods. Molecules 19:13541–13563Google Scholar
  2. Balmer D, Mauch-Mani B (2012) Plant hormones and metabolites as universal vocabulary in plant defense signaling. In: Witzany G, Baluška F (eds) Biocommunication of plants. Signaling and communication in plants. Springer, Berlin, pp 37–50Google Scholar
  3. Beaulieu C (2007) Les effets multiples du chitosane (in French with English summary). Phytothérapie 5:38Google Scholar
  4. Ben-Zioni A, Itai C, Vaadia Y (1967) Water and salt stress, kinetin and protein synthesis in tobacco leaves. Plant Physiol 42:361–365Google Scholar
  5. Bonfill M, Mangas S, Moyano E, Cusido RM, Palazon J (2011) Production of centellosides and phytosterols in cell suspension cultures of Centella asiatica. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 104:61–67Google Scholar
  6. Chen H, Jones AD, Howe GA (2006) Constitutive activation of the jasmonate signaling pathway enhances the production of secondary metabolites in tomato. FEBS Lett 580:2540–2546Google Scholar
  7. Coquoz JL, Buchala A, Métraux JP (1998) The biosynthesis of salicylic acid in potato plants. Plant Physiol 117:1095–1101Google Scholar
  8. Cueto-Ginzo AI, Serrano L, Bostock RM, Ferrio JP, Rodríguez R, Arcal L, Achon MA, Falcioni T, Luzuriaga WP, Medina V (2016) Salicylic acid mitigates physiological and proteomic changes induced by the SPCP1 strain of Potato virus X in tomato plants. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 93:1–11Google Scholar
  9. Daneshfar A, Ghaziaskar HS, Homayoun N (2008) Solubility of gallic acid in methanol, ethanol, water, and ethyl acetate. ‎J Chem Eng Data 53:776–778Google Scholar
  10. Dann EK, Deverall BJ (2000) Activation of systemic disease resistance in pea by an avirulent bacterium or a benzothiadiazole, but not by a fungal leaf spot pathogen. Plant Pathol 49:324–332Google Scholar
  11. Deverall BJ (1995) Plant protection using natural defence systems of plants. In: Andrews JH, Tommerup IC (eds) Advances in plant pathology. Academic Press, London, pp 211–225Google Scholar
  12. Diallo S, Latour X, Groboillot A, Smadja B, Copin P, Orange N, Feuilloley MGJ, Chevalier S (2009) Simultaneous and selective detection of two major soft rot pathogens of potato: Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Erwinia carotovora subsp. atrosepticum) and Dickeya spp. (Erwinia chrysanthemi). Eur J Plant Pathol 125:349–354Google Scholar
  13. Dixon RA (2001) Natural products and plant disease resistance. Nature 411:843–847Google Scholar
  14. Durrant WE, Dong X (2004) Systemic acquired resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 42:185–209Google Scholar
  15. Farmer EE, Ryan CA (1990) Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:7713–7716Google Scholar
  16. Farmer EE, Alméras E, Krishnamurthy V (2003) Jasmonates and related oxylipins in plant responses to pathogenesis and herbivory. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:372–378Google Scholar
  17. Friedman M (2004) Analysis of biologically active compounds in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), and jimson weed (Datura stramonium) seeds. J Chromatogr A 1054:143–155Google Scholar
  18. Friend J, Reynolds SB, Aveyard MA (1973) Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chlorogenic acid and lignin in potato tuber tissue inoculated with Phytophthora infestans. Physiol Plant Pathol 3:495–507Google Scholar
  19. Godoy-Hernández G, Vázquez-Flota FA (2006) Growth measurements: estimation of cell division and cell expansion. In: Loyola-Vargas VM, Vazquez-Flota FA (eds) Methods in molecular biology: plant cell culture protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 51–58Google Scholar
  20. Halim VA, Hunger A, Macioszek V, Landgraf P, Nürnberger T, Scheel D, Rosahl S (2004) The oligopeptide elicitor Pep-13 induces salicylic acid-dependent and -independent defense reactions in potato. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 64:311–318Google Scholar
  21. Hammond-Kosack KE, Jones JDG (2000) Responses to plant pathogens. In: Buchanan BB, Gruissem W, Jones RL (eds) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. American Society of Plant Physiology, Rockville, pp 1102–1156Google Scholar
  22. Hayat Q, Hayat S, Irfan M, Ahmad A (2010) Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: a review. Environ Exper Bot 68:14–25Google Scholar
  23. Heath MC (2000) Hypersensitive response-related death. Plant Mol Biol 44:321–334Google Scholar
  24. Hoysted GA, Lilley CJ, Field KJ, Dickinson M, Hartley SE, Urwin PE (2017) A plant-feeding nematode indirectly increases the fitness of an aphid. Front Plant Sci 8:1897Google Scholar
  25. Hukkanen AT, Kokko HI, Buchala AJ, McDougall GJ, Stewart D, Kärenlampi SO, Karjalainen RO (2007) Benzothiadiazole induces the accumulation of phenolics and improves resistance to powdery mildew in strawberries. J Agric Food Chem 55:1862–1870Google Scholar
  26. Im HW, Suh BS, Lee SU, Kozukue N, Ohnisi-Kameyama M, Levin CE, Friedman M (2008) Analysis of phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in potato plant flowers, leaves, stems, and tubers and in home-processed potatoes. J Agric Food Chem 56:3341–3349Google Scholar
  27. Jourdan E, Ongena M, Thonart P (2008) Caractéristiques moléculaires de l’immunité des plantes induite par les rhizobactéries non pathogènes. Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 12:437–449 (in Italian with English summary)Google Scholar
  28. Klessig DF, Tian M, Choi HW (2016) Multiple targets of salicylic acid and its derivatives in plants and animals. Front Immunol 7:206Google Scholar
  29. Lattanzio V, Lattanzio VMT, Cardinali A (2006) Role of phenolics in the resistance mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens and insects. In: Imperato F (ed) Phytochemistry: advances in research. Research Signpost, Kerala, pp 23–67Google Scholar
  30. Mahesh V, Million-Rousseau R, Ullmann P, Chabrillange N, Bustamante J, Mondolot L, Morant M, Noirot M, Hamon S, de Kochko A, Werck-Reichhart D, Campa C (2007) Functional characterization of two p-coumaroyl ester 3′-hydroxylase genes from coffee tree: evidence of a candidate for chlorogenic acid biosynthesis. Plant Mol Biol 64:145–159Google Scholar
  31. Mangas S, Moyano E, Osuna L, Cusido RM, Bonfill M, Palazon J (2008) Triterpenoid saponin content and the expression level of some related genes in calli of Centella asiatica. Biotechnol Lett 30:1853–1859Google Scholar
  32. Mattila P, Hellstrom J (2007) Phenolic acids in potatoes, vegetables, and some of their products. J Food Compost Anal 20:152–160Google Scholar
  33. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497Google Scholar
  34. Nge KL, New N, Chandrkrachang S, Stevens WF (2006) Chitosan as a growth stimulator in orchid tissue culture. Plant Sci 170:1185–1190Google Scholar
  35. Onrubia M, Moyano E, Bonfill M, Expósito O, Palazon J, Cusido RM (2008) An approach to the molecular mechanism of methyl jasmonate and vanadyl sulphate elicitation in Taxus baccata cell cultures: the role of txs and bapt gene expression. Biochem Eng J 53:104–111Google Scholar
  36. Ouanas S, Hamelin G, Hervet M, Andrivon D, Val F, Yahiaoui-Zaidi R (2017) Protection against bacterial soft rot by olive extracts is related to general defence induction in potato tubers. Plant Pathol 66:404–411Google Scholar
  37. Padda MS, Picha DH (2008) Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of different heat-processed forms of sweetpotato cv. ‘Beauregard’. Int J Food Sci Tech 43:1404–1409Google Scholar
  38. Papagiannopoulos M, Wollseifen HR, Mellenthin A, Haber B, Galensa R (2004) Identification and quantification of polyphenols in carob fruits (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and derived products by HPLC-UV-ESI/MSn. J Agric Food Chem 52:3784–3791Google Scholar
  39. Pathan MS, Naguyen HT, Subudhi PK, Courtois B (2004) Molecular dissection of abiotic stress tolerance in sorghum and rice. In: Nguyen HT, Blum A (eds) Physiology and biotechnology integration for plant breeding. Marcel Dekker, NY, pp 525–570Google Scholar
  40. Pieterse CMJ, van Loon LC (1999) Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways. Trends Plant Sci 4:52–58Google Scholar
  41. Pourcel L, Grotewold E (2009) Participation of phytochemicals in plant development and growth. In: Osbourn AE, Lanzotti V (eds) Plant-derived natural products: synthesis, function, and application. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 269–279Google Scholar
  42. Pruski K, Astatkie T, Nowak J (2002) Jasmonate effects on in vitro tuberization and tuber bulking in two potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) under different media and photoperiod conditions. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 38:203–209Google Scholar
  43. Ramirez-Estrada K, Vidal-Limon H, Hidalgo D, Moyano E, Golenioswki M, Cusidó RM, Palazon J (2016) Elicitation, an effective strategy for the biotechnological production of bioactive high-added value compounds in plant cell factories. Molecules 21:182Google Scholar
  44. Reddy MVB, Angers P, Castaigne F, Arul J (2000) Chitosan effects on blackmold rot and pathogenic factors produced by Alternaria alternata in postharvest tomatoes. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 125:742–747Google Scholar
  45. Ren C, Chen J, Lu X, Doughty R, Zhao F, Zhong Z, Han X, Yang G, Feng Y, Ren G (2018) Responses of soil total microbial biomass and community compositions to rainfall reduction. Soil Biol Biochem 116:4–10Google Scholar
  46. Rinaudo M (2006) Chitin and chitosan: properties and applications. Progr Polym Sci 31:603–632Google Scholar
  47. Rivas-San Vicente M, Plasencia J (2011) Salicylic acid beyond defence: its role in plant growth and development. J Exp Bot 62:3321–3338Google Scholar
  48. Salachna P, Zawadzińska A (2014) Effect of chitosan on plant growth, flowering and corms yield of potted freesia. J Ecol Eng 15:97–102Google Scholar
  49. Steck W (1968) Metabolism of cinnamic acid in plants: chlorogenic acid formation. Phytochemistry 7:1711–1717Google Scholar
  50. Taiz L, Zeiger E (2002) Plant physiology, 3rd edn. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  51. Thordal-Christensen H (2009) Vesicle trafficking in plant pathogen defence. In: Baluška F, Mancuso S (eds) Signaling in plants. Springer, Berlin, pp 287–301Google Scholar
  52. Uppalapati SR, Ayoubi P, Weng H, Palmer DA, Mitchell RE, Jones W, Bender CL (2005) The phytotoxin coronatine and methyl jasmonate impact multiple phytohormone pathways in tomato. Plant J 42:201–217Google Scholar
  53. van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM, Van de Heijdt WHW, Wendehenne D, Pugin A (2008) Early responses of tobacco suspension cells to rhizobacterial elicitors of induced systemic resistance. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 21:1609–1621Google Scholar
  54. Verhagen BWM, Trotel-Aziz P, Couderchet M, Hofte M, Aziz A (2010) Pseudomonas spp.-induced systemic resistance to Botrytis cinerea is associated with induction and priming of defence responses in grapevine. J Exp Bot 61:249–260Google Scholar
  55. Walton JD (1997) Biochemical plant pathology. In: Dey P, Harborne J (eds) Plant biochemistry. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 487–502Google Scholar
  56. Wasternack C, Hause B (2013) Jasmonates: biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development. Ann Bot 111:1021–1058Google Scholar
  57. Yahiaoui-Zaidi R, Ladjouzi R, Benallaoua S (2010) Pathogenic variability within biochemical groups of Pectobacterium carotovorum isolated in Algeria from seed potato tubers. Int J Biotechnol Mol Biol Res 1:001–009Google Scholar
  58. Zhang B, Zheng LP, Wang JW (2012) Nitric oxide elicitation for secondary metabolite production in cultured plant cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:455–466Google Scholar
  59. Zhou Y, Ma J, Xie J, Deng L, Yao S, Zeng K (2018) Transcriptomic and biochemical analysis of highlighted induction of phenylpropanoid pathway metabolism of citrus fruit in response to salicylic acid, Pichia membranaefaciens and oligochitosan. Postharvest Biol Technol 142:81–92Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Secció de Fisiologia Vegetal, Facultat de FarmaciaUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Microbiologie Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la VieUniversité de BejaiaBejaïaAlgeria
  3. 3.Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la SalutUniversitat Pompeu FabraBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Food Science, Faculty of Nature and Life SciencesUniversité de BejaiaBejaïaAlgeria

Personalised recommendations