Journal of General Plant Pathology

, Volume 85, Issue 1, pp 12–22 | Cite as

A multiplex PCR assay for three pathogenic Phytophthora species related to kiwifruit diseases in China

  • Xiaoqiong Bi
  • Ayaka Hieno
  • Kayoko Otsubo
  • Koji Kageyama
  • Gang Liu
  • Mingzhu LiEmail author
Fungal Diseases


Phytophthora cactorum, P. cinnamomi and P. lateralis were reported to be pathogenic on kiwifruit trees in the main planting areas of China. We attempted to simultaneously detect the three pathogens using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to survey their occurrence in the main production areas. Because of the need to combine different primer pairs for the multiplex PCR and the low specificity of published specific primers for P. cactorum, P. cinnamomi and P. lateralis, new species-specific primers for the three species were designed based on the ras-related protein gene, Ypt1. The specificity of the designed primers was demonstrated using 52 isolates, including 44 Phytophthora species, three Pythium species, and three other soil-borne pathogens. A multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection of P. cactorum, P. cinnamomi and P. lateralis was established, and the three pathogens were detected in artificially and naturally infested soils, indicating that these markers can be used in the diagnosis of kiwifruit Phytophthora diseases. In a survey of these pathogens in the main kiwifruit planting areas of China, 99 soil samples were collected at different locations and in different seasons and subjected to the new method, and the distribution of the three pathogens in the main kiwifruit planting areas of China was determined.


Phytophthora cactorum P. cinnamomi P. lateralis Ras-related protein gene Ypt1 Multiplex PCR 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 31500415, 31600445) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (grant nos. GK201703033, GK201703036) of China. We thank Dr. Koji Kageyama of Gifu University for isolates of many important Phytophthora spp. and the Plant Protective Stations of Zhouzhi and Meixian Prefectures for information on soil samples from kiwifruit planting areas.

Compliance with ethical standards

Research involving human or animal participants

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life SciencesShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.River Basin Research CenterGifu UniversityGifuJapan

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