Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 1495–1521 | Cite as

Detection and removal of heavy metal ions: a review

  • Lateef Ahmad Malik
  • Arshid Bashir
  • Aaliya Qureashi
  • Altaf Hussain PandithEmail author


In aqueous systems, heavy metal ions, when present in excess than permissible limits, are dangerous for human beings and aquatic life. Heavy metals cannot be degraded. Rather, they accumulate in living organisms either directly or through the food chain. Inside the body, metal ions can be converted to more toxic forms or can directly interfere with metabolic processes. As a result of metal toxicity, various disorders and damage due to oxidative stress triggered by metal ions have been witnessed. Toxic effects of metallic pollution coupled with the need of pure water for the survival and sanitation have thus prompted researchers to take every possible step to uphold the quality of water. In this regard, various strategies have been developed for the detection and the removal of metal ions from aqueous systems. Here we review metal-free water and methodologies used for rapid detection at low levels. Also, the application of benign materials and methods for metal removal from aqueous systems is detailed. Electrochemical methods, especially stripping and cyclic voltammetry, are commonly used methods for detection, while adsorption and ion exchange methods are quite effective for removal.


Heavy metal ions Cyclic voltammetry Anodic stripping Removal of metal ions Adsorption Ion exchange 



We are thankful to the Head of the department for providing timely encouragement and other valuable suggestions. Also LAM and AB would like to thank CSIR, New Delhi, for their financial help in the form of Senior Research Fellowship (SRF).


  1. Abdulrazak S, Hussaini K, Sani HM (2017) Evaluation of removal efficiency of heavy metals by low-cost activated carbon prepared from African palm fruit. Appl Water Sci 7:3151–3155Google Scholar
  2. Abo-Farha SA, Abdel-Aal AY, Ashourb IA, Garamon SE (2009) Removal of some heavy metal cations by synthetic resin purolite C100. J Hazard Mater 169:190–194Google Scholar
  3. Aglan RF, Saleh HM, Mohamed GG (2018) Potentiometric determination of mercury(II) ion in various real samples using novel modifed screen-printed electrode. Appl Water Sci 8:141–151Google Scholar
  4. Ahad S, Bashir A, Manzoor T, Pandith AH (2016) Exploring the ion exchange and separation capabilities of thermally stable acrylamide zirconium(IV) sulphosalicylate (AaZrSs) composite material. RSC Adv 6:35914–35927Google Scholar
  5. Akbal F, Camci S (2011) Copper, chromium and nickel removal from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation. Desalin 269:214–222Google Scholar
  6. Ali H, Khan E (2018) Bioaccumulation of non-essential hazardous heavy metals and metalloids in freshwater fsh. Risk to human health. Environ Chem Lett 16:903–917Google Scholar
  7. Al-Malack MH, Al-Attas OG, Basaleh AA (2017) Competitive adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ onto activated carbon produced from municipal organic solid waste. Desalin Water Treat 60:310–318Google Scholar
  8. Al-Othman ZA, Inamuddin, Naushad M (2011a) Determination of ion-exchange kinetic parameters for the poly-o-methoxyaniline Zr(IV) molybdate composite cation-exchanger. Chem Eng J 166:639–645Google Scholar
  9. Al-Othman ZA, Naushad M, Inamuddin (2011b) Organic–inorganic type composite cation exchanger poly-o-toluidine Zr(IV) tungstate: preparation, physicochemical characterization and its analytical application in separation of heavy metals. Chem Eng J 172:369–375Google Scholar
  10. AL-Othman ZA, Ali R, Naushad M (2012) Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous medium by activated carbon prepared from peanut shell: adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 184:238–247Google Scholar
  11. Al-Othman ZA, Alam MM, Naushad M (2013) Heavy toxic metal ion exchange kinetics: validation of ion exchange process on composite cation exchanger nylon 6,6 Zr(IV) phosphate. J Ind Eng Chem 19:956–960Google Scholar
  12. Alqadami AA, Naushad M, Abdalla MA, Ahamad T, AL Othman ZA, Alsehri SM, AA AA (2017a) Efficient removal of toxic metal ions from wastewater using a recyclable nanocomposite: a study of adsorption parameters and interaction mechanism. J Clean Prod 156:426–436Google Scholar
  13. Alqadami AA, Naushad M, Alothman ZA, Ghfar AA (2017b) Novel metal − organic framework (MOF) based composite material for the sequestration of U(VI) and Th(IV) metal ions from aqueous environment. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:36026–36037Google Scholar
  14. Al-Qodah Z, Al-Shannag M (2017) Heavy metal ions removal from wastewater using electrocoagulation processes: a comprehensive review. Sep Sci Technol 52:2649–2676Google Scholar
  15. Alyüz B, Veli S (2009) Kinetics and equilibrium studies for the removal of nickel and zinc from aqueous solutions by ion exchange resins. J Hazard Mater 167:482–488Google Scholar
  16. Anastopoulos I, Robalds A, Tran HN, Mitrogiannis D, Giannakoudakis DA, Hosseini-Bandegharaei A, Dotto GL (2018) Removal of heavy metals by leaves-derived biosorbents. Environ Chem Lett 5:4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Arduini F, Majorani C, Amine A, Moscone D, Palleschi G (2011) Hg2+ detection by measuring thiol groups with a highly sensitive screen-printed electrode modified with a nanostructured carbon black film. Electrochim Acta 56:4209–4215Google Scholar
  18. Array G, Merkoci A (2012) Nanomaterials application in electrochemical detection of heavy metals. Electrochim Acta 84:49–61Google Scholar
  19. Athanasiadis K, Helmreich B (2005) Influence of chemical conditioning on the ion exchange capacity and on kinetic of zinc uptake by clinoptilolite. Water Res 39:1527–1532Google Scholar
  20. Ayangbenro AS, Babalola OO (2017) A new strategy for heavy metal polluted environments: a review of microbial biosorbents. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14:94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Badawy NA, El-Bayaa AA, Abdel-Aal AY, Garamon SE (2009) Chromatographic separations and recovery of lead ions from a synthetic binary mixtures of some heavy metal using cation exchange resin. J Hazard Mater 166:1266–1271Google Scholar
  22. Bahr JL, Mickelson ET, Bronikowski MJ, Smalley RE, Tour JM (2001) Dissolution of small diameter single-wall carbon nanotubes in organic solvents. Chem Commun 2:193–194Google Scholar
  23. Bakker E, Pretsch E (2008) Nanoscale potentiometry. Trends Anal Chem 27:612Google Scholar
  24. Bansod BK, Kumar T, Thakur R, Rana S, Singh I (2017) A review on various electrochemical techniques for heavy metal ions detection with different sensing platforms. Biosens Bioelectron 94:443–455Google Scholar
  25. Barakat MA (2011) New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arabian J Chem 4:361–377Google Scholar
  26. Bashir A, Ahad S, Pandith AH (2016) Soft template assisted synthesis of zirconium resorcinol phosphate nanocomposite material for the uptake of heavy-metal ions. Ind Eng Chem Res 55:4820–4829Google Scholar
  27. Bashir A, Malik LA, Ahad S, Manzoor T, Bhat MA, Dar GN, Pandith AH (2018) Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous system by ion-exchange and biosorption methods. Environ Chem Lett. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Beltran B, Leal LO, Ferrer L, Cerd V (2015) Determination of lead by atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an automated extraction/preconcentration flow system. J Anal At Spectrom 30:1072–1079Google Scholar
  29. Bernard E, Jimoh A, Odigure JO (2013) Heavy metals removal from industrial wastewater by activated carbon prepared from coconut shell. Res J Chem Sci 3:3–9Google Scholar
  30. Cabrera-Vique C, Teissedre P, Cabanis M, Cabanis J (1997) Determination and levels of chromium in french wine and grapes by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 45:1808–1811Google Scholar
  31. Carolin CF, Kumar PS, Saravanan A, Joshib GJ, Naushad M (2017) Efficient techniques for the removal of toxic heavy metals from aquatic environment: a review. J Environ Chem Eng 5:2782–2799Google Scholar
  32. Celebi MS, Ozyörük H, Yildiz A, Abaci S (2009) Determination of Hg2+ on poly(vinylferrocenium) (PVF+)-modified platinum electrode. Talanta 78:405–409Google Scholar
  33. Charerntanyarak L (1999) Heavy metals removal by chemical coagulation and precipitation. Wat Sci Technol 39:135–138Google Scholar
  34. Chen J, Xiao S, Wu X, Fang K, Liu W (2005) Determination of lead in water samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after cloud point extraction. Talanta 67:992–996Google Scholar
  35. Chen H, Qian GR, Ruan XX, Frost RL (2016) Removal process of nickel(II) by using dodecyl sulfate intercalated calcium aluminum layered double hydroxide. Appl Clay Sci 132:419–424Google Scholar
  36. Chiarle S, Ratto M, Rovatti M (2000) Mercury removal from water by ion exchange resins adsorption. Water Res 34:2971–2978Google Scholar
  37. Crini G, Lichtfouse E (2019) Advantages and disadvantages of techniques used for wastewater treatment. Environ Chem Lett 17:145–155Google Scholar
  38. Crini G, Morin-Crini N, Fatin-Rouge Deon S, Fievet P (2017) Metal removal from aqueous media by polymer-assisted ultrafiltration with chitosan. Arabian J Chem 10:3826–3839Google Scholar
  39. Cui L, Wu J, Ju H (2015) Electrochemical sensing of heavy metal ions with inorganic, organic and bio-materials. Biosens Bioelectron 63:276–286Google Scholar
  40. Cvetkovi J, Arpadjan S, Karadjova I, Stafilov T (2006) Determination of cadmium in wine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Acta Pharm 56:69–77Google Scholar
  41. Czolk R, Reichert J, Ache HJ (1992) An optical sensor for the detection of heavy metal ions. Sens Actuators B 7:540–543Google Scholar
  42. de Greogi I, Quiroz W, Pinochet H, Pannier F, Potin-Gautier M (2007) Speciation analysis of antimony in marine biota by HPLC-(UV)-HG-AFS: extraction procedures and stability of antimony species. Talanta 73:458–465Google Scholar
  43. Devi NR, Sasidharan M, Sundramoorthy AK (2018) Gold nanoparticles-thiol-functionalized reduced graphene oxide coated electrochemical sensor system for selective detection of mercury ion. J Electrochem Soc 165:3046–3053Google Scholar
  44. Díez-Gil C, Caballero A, Ratera I, Tárraga A, Molina P, Veciana J (2007) Naked-eye and selective detection of mercury (II) ions in mixed aqueous media using a cellulose-based support. Sensors 7:3481–3488Google Scholar
  45. Dong SF, Zhu ZG (2002) Determination of the contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn in suxiao jiuxin pill and the analysis of Ca/Mg and Cu/Zn values. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 22:478–479Google Scholar
  46. Dong SF, Zhu ZG (2003) Determination of the content of inorganic elements in taponin tablet recipe. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 23:201–202Google Scholar
  47. Dubey S, Shri M, Gupta A, Rani V, Chakrabarty D (2018) Toxicity and detoxifcation of heavy metals during plant growth and metabolism. Environ Chem Lett 16:1169–1192Google Scholar
  48. Durmuşkahya C, Alp H, Hortooglu ZS, Toktas U, Kayalar H (2016) X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic determination of heavy metals and trace elements in aerial parts of Origanum sipyleum L from Turkey. Trop J Pharm Res 15:1013–1015Google Scholar
  49. Düzgün A, Zelada-Guillén GA, Crespo GA, Macho S, Riu J, Rius FX (2011) Nanostructured materials in potentiometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 399:171–181Google Scholar
  50. El-Bahi SM, Sroor AT, Arhoma NF, Darwish SM (2013) XRF analysis of heavy metals for surface soil of Qarun Lake and Wadi El Rayan in Faiyum, Egypt. Open J Metal 3:21–25Google Scholar
  51. Elfeky SA, Mahmoud SE, Youssef AF (2017) Applications of CTAB modified magnetic nanoparticles for removal of chromium(VI) from contaminated water. J Adv Res 8:435–443Google Scholar
  52. Elifantz H, Tel-Or E (2002) Heavy metal biosorption by plant biomass of the macrophyte Ludwigia stolonifera. Water Air Soil Pollut 141:207–218Google Scholar
  53. Ene A, Bosneaga A, Georgescu L (2010) Determination of heavy metals in soils using XRF technique. Romanian J Phys 55:815–820Google Scholar
  54. Escudero LB, Quintas PY, Wuilloud RG, Dotto GL (2019) Recent advances on elemental biosorption. Environ Chem Lett 17:409–427Google Scholar
  55. Eshaq G, Rabie AM, Bakr AA, Mady AH, ElMetwally AE (2016) Cr(VI) adsorption from aqueous solutions onto Mg–Zn–Al LDH and its corresponding oxide. Desalin Water Treat 57:20377–20387Google Scholar
  56. Estela JM, Tomas C, Cladera A, Cerda V (1995) Potentiometric stripping analysis: a review. Crit Rev Anal Chem 25:91Google Scholar
  57. Flora SJS (2009) Structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants for strategies against metal and metalloid exposure. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2:191–206Google Scholar
  58. Flora SJS, Mittal M, Mehta A (2008) Heavy metal induced oxidative stress and its possible reversal by chelationtherapy. Indian J Med Res 128:501–523Google Scholar
  59. Fu Y, Li H, Hu W (2007) Small molecular chromogenic sensors for Hg2+: a strong, “push–pull” system exists after binding. Eur J Org Chem 2007:2459–2463Google Scholar
  60. Gadhave A, Waghmare J (2014) Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Int J Chem Sci Appl 5:56–67Google Scholar
  61. Garba MD, Usman M, Mazumder MAJ, Al-Ahmed A, Inamuddin (2019) Complexing agents for metal removal using ultrafltration membranes: a review. Environ Chem Lett 5:4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Garcia MA, Alonso J, Melgar MJ (2005) Agaricus macrospores as a potential bioremediation agent for substrates contaminated with heavy metals. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 80:325–330Google Scholar
  63. Geckeler KE, Volchek K (1996) Removal of hazardous substances from water using ultrafiltration in conjunction with soluble polymers. Environ Sci Technol 30:725–734Google Scholar
  64. Gemma F, Juan ML, Ana B, Jose DL (2006) Daily intake of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead by consumption of edible marine species. J Agric Food Chem 54:6106–6112Google Scholar
  65. Ghasemi M, Naushad M, Ghasemi N, Khosravi-fard Y (2014a) A novel agricultural waste based adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. J Ind Eng Chem 20:454–461Google Scholar
  66. Ghasemi M, Naushad M, Ghasemi N, Khosravi-fard Y (2014b) Adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using new adsorbents prepared from agricultural waste: adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies. J Ind Eng Chem 20:2193–2199Google Scholar
  67. Gode F, Pehlivan E (2006) Removal of chromium (III) from aqueous solutions using Lewatit S 100: the effect of pH, time, metal concentration and temperature. J Hazard Mater 136:330–337Google Scholar
  68. Gong T, Liu J, Liu X, Liu J, Xiang J, Wu Y (2016) A sensitive and selective platform based on CdTe QDs in the presence of l-cysteine for detection of silver, mercury and copper ions in water and various drinks. Food Chem 213:306–312Google Scholar
  69. Gumpu MB, Sethuramanb S, Krishnanb UM, Rayappana JBB (2015) A review on detection of heavy metal ions in water—an electrochemical approach. Sens Actuators B 213:515–533Google Scholar
  70. Gumpu MB, Krishnan UM, Rayappan JBB (2017) Design and development of amperometric biosensor for the detection of lead and mercury ions in water matrix-a permeability approach. Anal Bioanal Chem 409:4257–4266Google Scholar
  71. Hafuka A, Takitani A, Suzuki H, Iwabuchi T, Takahashi M, Okabe S, Satoh H (2017) Determination of cadmium in brown rice samples by fluorescence spectroscopy using a fluoroionophore after purification of cadmium by anion exchange resin. Sensors 17:2291–2300Google Scholar
  72. Hao P, Ma X, Xie J, Lei F, Li L, Zhu W, Cheng X, Cui G, Tang B (2018) Removal of toxic metal ions using chitosan coated carbon nanotube composites for supercapacitors. Sci China Chem 61:797–805Google Scholar
  73. Harrington CF, Clough R, Drennan-Harris LR, Hill SJ, Tyson JF (2011) Atomic spectrometry update. Elemental speciation. J Anal At Spectrom 26:1561–1595Google Scholar
  74. He X, Qiu X, Hu C, Liu Y (2018) Treatment of heavy metal ions in wastewater using layered double hydroxides: a review. J Dispers Sci Technol 39:792–801Google Scholar
  75. Hisamoto H, Nakagawa E, Nagatsuka K, Abe Y, Sato S, Siswanta D, Suzuki K (1995) Silver ion selective optodes based on novel thia ether compounds. Anal Chem 67:1315–1321Google Scholar
  76. Hutton LA, ONeil GD, Read TL, Ayres Z, Newton ME, Macpherson JV (2014) Electrochemical X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for trace heavy metal analysis: enhancing X-ray fluorescence detection capabilities by four orders of magnitude. Anal Chem 86:4566–4572Google Scholar
  77. Ihsanullah AA, Al-Amer AM, Laoui T, Al-Marri MJ, Nasser MS, Khraisheh M, Atieh MA (2016) Heavy metal removal from aqueous solution by advanced carbon nanotubes: critical review of adsorption applications. Sep Purif Technol 157:141–161Google Scholar
  78. Inamuddin, Naushad M, Rangreeza TA, AL-Othman ZA (2015) Ion-selective potentiometric determination of Pb(II) ions using PVC-based carboxymethyl cellulose Sn(IV) phosphate composite membrane electrode. Desalin Water Treat 56:806–813Google Scholar
  79. Ingale SA, Seela F (2012) A ratiometric fluorescent on–off Zn2+ chemosensor based on a tripropargylamine pyrene azide click adduct. J Org Chem 77:9352–9356Google Scholar
  80. Inglezakis VJ, Stylianou MA, Gkantzou D, Loizidou MD (2007) Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by using clinoptilolite and bentonite as adsorbents. Desalination 210:248–256Google Scholar
  81. Innuphata C, Chootoa P (2017) Determination of trace levels of Cd(II) in tap water samples by anodic stripping voltammetry with an electrografted boron-doped diamond electrode. ScienceAsia 43:33–41Google Scholar
  82. Ismaiel AA, Aroua MK, Yusoff R (2012) Potentiometric determination of trace amounts of mercury(II) in water sample using a new modified palm shell activated carbon paste electrode based on kryptofix®5. Am J Anal Chem 3:859–865Google Scholar
  83. Javanbakht M, Divsar F, Badiei A, Ganjali MR, Norouzi P, Mohammadi ZG, Chaloosi M, Abdi JA (2009) Potentiometric detection of mercury(II) ions using a carbon paste electrode modified with substituted thiourea-functionalized highly ordered nanoporous silica. Anal Sci 25:789–794Google Scholar
  84. Jian-Qua L, Xi-We H, Xian-Shun Z, Hai-Li Z, Zheng-Zh Z (2003) Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of lead (II) using glassy carbon electrode modified with novel Calix[4] arene. Chin J Chem 21:687–692Google Scholar
  85. Jothimuthu P, Wilson RA, Herren J, Haynes EN, Heineman WR, Papautsky I (2011) Lab-on-a-chip sensor for detection of highly electronegative heavy metals by anodic stripping voltammetry. Biomed Micro 13:695–703Google Scholar
  86. Kadarkaraisamy M, Sykes AG (2006) Luminescence detection of transition and heavy metals by inversion of excited states: synthesis, spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography of Ca, Mn, Pb, and Zn complexes of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5. Inorg Chem 45:779–786Google Scholar
  87. Kadarkaraisamy M, Sykes AG (2007) Selective luminescence detection of cadmium(II) and mercury(II) utilizing sulfur-containing anthraquinone macrocycles (part 2) and formation of an unusual Hg2 2+-crown ether dimer via reduction of Hg(II) by DMF. Polyhedron 26:1323–1330Google Scholar
  88. Kahlon SK, Sharma G, Julka JM, Kumar A, Sharma S, Stadler FJ (2018) Impact of heavy metals and nanoparticles on aquatic biota. Environ Chem Lett 16:919–946Google Scholar
  89. Kanchana P, Sudhan N, Anandhakumar S, Mathiyarasu J, Manisankar P, Sekar C (2015) Electrochemical detection of mercury using biosynthesized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes without preconcentration. RSC Adv 5:68587–68594Google Scholar
  90. Kang SY, Lee JU, Moon SH, Kim KW (2004) Competitive adsorption characteristics of Co2+, Ni2+, and Cr2+ by IRN-77 cation exchange resin in synthesized wastewater. Chemosphere 56:141–147Google Scholar
  91. Kapolna E, Gerely V, Dernovics M, Illes A, Fodor P (2007) Fate of selenium species in sesame seeds during simulated bakery process. J Food Eng 79:494–501Google Scholar
  92. Karimi M, Aboufazeli F, Zhad HRLZ, Sadeghi O, Najafi E (2012) Determination of cadmium(II) ions in environmental samples: a potentiometric sensor. Curr World Environ 7:201–206Google Scholar
  93. Karnib M, Kabbani A, Holail H, Olama Z (2014) Heavy metals removal using activated carbon, silica and silica activated carbon composite. Energy Procedia 50:113–120Google Scholar
  94. Kempegowda RG, Malingappa P (2012) A binderless, covalently bulk modified electrochemical sensor: application to simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium at trace level. Anal Chim Acta 728:9–17Google Scholar
  95. Kojuncu Y, Bundalevska JM, Ay U, Cundeva K, Stafilov T, Akcin G (2004) Atomic absorption spectrometry determination of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Tl traces in seawater following flotation separation. Sep Sci Technol 39:2751–2765Google Scholar
  96. Kulshreshtha S (2018) Removal of pollutants using spent mushrooms substrates. Environ Chem Lett 5:5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lair GJ, Gerzabek MH, Haberhauer G (2007) Sorption of heavy metals on organic and inorganic soil constituents. Environ Chem Lett 5:23–27Google Scholar
  98. Lakowicz JR (1983) Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Lebedev A, Sinikova N, Nikolaeva S, Poliakova O, Khrushcheva M, Pozdnyakov S (2003) Metals and organic pollutants in snow surrounding an iron factory. Environ Chem Lett 1:107–112Google Scholar
  100. Lee MH, Wu J, Lee JW, Jung JH, Kim JS (2007) Highly sensitive and selective chemosensor for Hg2+ based on the rhodamine fluorophore. Org Lett 9:2501–2504Google Scholar
  101. Lee HJ, Lagger G, Pereirac CM, Silvac AF, Girault HH (2009) Amperometric tape ion sensors for cadmium(II) ion analysis. Talanta 78:66–70Google Scholar
  102. Lerchi M, Bakker E, Rusterholz B, Simon W (1992) Lead-selective bulk optodes based on neutral ionophores with subnanomolar detection limits. Anal Chem 64:1534–1540Google Scholar
  103. Lerchi M, Reitter E, Simon W, Pretsch E, Chowdhury DA, Kamata S (1994) Bulk optodes based on neutral dithiocarbamate ionophores with high selectivity and sensitivity for silver and mercury cations. Anal Chem 66:1713–1717Google Scholar
  104. Li YH, Di Z, Ding J, Wu D, Luan Z, Zhu Y (2005) Adsorption thermodynamic kinetic and desorption studies of Pb2+ on carbon nanotubes. Water Res 39:605–609Google Scholar
  105. Li X, Zhou D, Xu J, Chen H (2007) In-channel indirect amperometric detection of heavy metal ions for electrophoresis on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip. Talanta 71:1130–1135Google Scholar
  106. Li Y, Gao B, Wu T, Sun D, Li X, Wang B, Lu F (2009) Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on aluminum magnesium mixed hydroxide. Water Res 43:3067–3075Google Scholar
  107. Liu J, Rinzler AG, Dai H, Hafner JH, Bradley RK, Boul PJ, Smalley RE (1998) Fullerene pipes. Science 280:1253–1256Google Scholar
  108. Liu ZG, Chen X, Jia Y, Liu JH, Huang XJ (2014a) Role of Fe(III) in preventing humic interference during As(III) detection on gold electrode: spectroscopic and voltammetric evidence. J Hazard Mater 267:153–160Google Scholar
  109. Liu ZG, Chen X, Liu JH, Huang XJ (2014b) Robust electrochemical analysis of As(III) integrating with interference tests: a case study in groundwater. J Hazard Mater 278:66–74Google Scholar
  110. Logar M, Horvat M, Akagi H, Pihlar B (2002) Simultaneous determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury compounds in natural waters. Anal Bioanal Chem 374:1015–1021Google Scholar
  111. Losev VN, Buyko OV, Trofimchuk AK, Zuy ON (2015) Silica sequentially modified with polyhexamethylene guanidine and arsenazo I for preconcentration and ICPOES determination of metals in natural waters. Micro Chem J 123:84–89Google Scholar
  112. Luo L, Wang X, Ding Y, Li Q, Jia J, Deng D (2010) Voltammetric determination of Pb2+ and Cd2+ with montmorillonite-bismuth-carbon electrodes. Appl Clay Sci 50:154–157Google Scholar
  113. Lutfullah Rashid M, Rahman N (2012) Potentiometric sensor for the determination of lead(II) ion based on zirconium(IV) iodosulphosalicylate. Sci Adv Mater 4:1–6Google Scholar
  114. Ma L, Wang Q, Islam SM, Liu Y, Ma S, Kanatzidis MG (2016) Highly selective and efficient removal of heavy metals by layered double hydroxide intercalated with the MoS4 2− ion. J Am Chem Soc 138:2858–2866Google Scholar
  115. Ma L, IslamSM Liu H, Zhao J, Sun G, Li H, Ma S, Kanatzidis MG (2017) Selective and efficient removal of toxic oxoanions of As(III), As(V), and Cr(VI) by layered double hydroxide intercalated with MoS4 2−. Chem Mater 29:3274–3284Google Scholar
  116. Majid S, El-Rhazi M, Amine A, Brett CMA (2002) An amperometric method for the determination of trace mercury(II) by formation of complexes with l-tyrosine. Anal Chim Acta 464:123–133Google Scholar
  117. Mallampati SR, Mitoma Y, Okuda T, Sakita S, Kakeda M (2013) Total immobilization of soil heavy metals with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO dispersion mixtures. Environ Chem Lett 11:119–125Google Scholar
  118. Marguí E, Kregsamer P, Hidalgoc M, Tapias J, Queralt I, Streli C (2010) Analytical approaches for Hg determination in wastewater samples by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Talanta 82:821–827Google Scholar
  119. Marshall WE, Johns MM (1996) Agricultural by-products as metal adsorbents: sorption properties and resistance to mechanical abrasion. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 66:192–198Google Scholar
  120. Matlock MM, Henke KR, Atwood DA (2002a) Effectiveness of commercial reagents for heavy metal removal from water with new insights for future chelate designs. J Hazard Mater 92:129–142Google Scholar
  121. Matlock MM, Howerton BS, Aelstyn MAV, Nordstrom FL, Atwood DA (2002b) Advanced mercury removal from gold leachate solutions prior to gold and silver extraction: a field study from an active gold mine in Peru. Environ Sci Technol 36:1636–1639Google Scholar
  122. Maximous NN, Nakhla GF, Wan WK (2004) Removal of heavy metals from wastewater by membrane processes: a comparative study. Desalination 164:105–110Google Scholar
  123. Mazloum-ardakani M, Amini MK, Dehghan M, Kordi E, Sheikh-mohsen MA (2012) Nanomolar determination of Pb(II) ions using a selective templated electrode. J Serb Chem Soc 77:899–910Google Scholar
  124. Minami T, Atsumi K, Ueda J (2003) Determination of cobalt and nickel by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with scandium hydroxide. Anal Sci 19:313–315Google Scholar
  125. Mirbagheri SA, Hosseini SN (2005) Pilot plant investigation on petrochemical wastewater treatment for the removal of copper and chromium with the objective of reuse. Desalination 171:85–93Google Scholar
  126. Mittal A, Naushad M, Sharma G, ALothman ZA, Wabaidur SM, Alam M (2016) Fabrication of MWCNTs/ThO2 nanocomposite and its adsorption behavior for the removal of Pb(II) metal from aqueous medium. Desalin Water Treat 57(46):21863–21869Google Scholar
  127. Mohammadi H, Amine A, Cosnier S, Mousty C (2005) Mercury–enzyme inhibition assays with an amperometric sucrose biosensor based on atrienzymatic-clay matrix. Anal Chim Acta 543:143–149Google Scholar
  128. Moraes PM, Santos FA, Cavecci B, Padilha CC, Vieira JC, Roldan PS, Padilha PM (2013) GFAAS determination of mercury in muscle samples of fish from Amazon, Brazil. Food Chem 141:2614–2617Google Scholar
  129. Morin-Crini N, Loiacono S, Placet V, Torri G, Bradu C, Kostić M, Cosentino C, Chanet G, Martel B, Lichtfouse E, Crini G (2019) Hemp-based adsorbents for sequestration of metals: a review. Environ Chem Lett 17:393–408Google Scholar
  130. Mosekiemang T, Dikinya O (2012) Efficiency of chelating agents in retaining sludge-borne heavy metals in intensively applied agricultural soils. Int J Environ Sci Technol 9:129–134Google Scholar
  131. Motsi T, Rowson NA, Simmons MJH (2009) Adsorption of heavy metals from acid mine drainage by natural zeolite. Int J Miner Process 92:42–48Google Scholar
  132. Mugheri AQ, Tahira A, Sirajuddin Sherazi STH, Abro MI, Willander M, Ibupoto ZH (2016) An amperometric indirect determination of heavy metal ions through inhibition of glucose oxidase immobilized on cobalt oxide nanostructures. Sens Lett 14:1–9Google Scholar
  133. Muniz-Naveiro O, Dominguez-Gonzalez R, Bermejo-Barrera A, Bermejo-Barrera P, Cocho JA, Fraga JM (2007) Selenium speciation in cow milk obtained after supplementation with different selenium forms to the cow feed using liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Talanta 71:1587–1593Google Scholar
  134. Muthusaravanan S, Sivarajasekar N, Vivek JS, Paramasivan T, Naushad M, Prakashmaran J, Gayathri V, Al-Duaij OK (2018) Phytoremediation of heavy metals: mechanisms, methods and enhancements. Environ Chem Lett 16:1339–1359Google Scholar
  135. Nabi SA, Naushad M, Bushra R (2009) Synthesis and characterization of a new organic–inorganic Pb2+ selective composite cation exchanger acrylonitrile stannic(IV) tungstate and its analytical applications. Chem Eng J 152:80–87Google Scholar
  136. Nagajyoti PC, Lee KD, Sreekanth TVM (2018) Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Environ Chem Lett 8:199–216Google Scholar
  137. Naushad M (2014) Surfactant assisted nano-composite cation exchanger: development, characterization and applications for the removal of toxic Pb2+ from aqueous medium. Chem Eng J 235:100–108Google Scholar
  138. Naushad M, AL-Othman ZA, Islam M (2013) Adsorption of cadmium ion using a new composite cationexchanger polyaniline Sn(IV) silicate: kinetics, thermodynamic and isotherm studies. Int J Environ Sci Technol 10:567–578Google Scholar
  139. Naushad M, Rangreez TA, Inamuddin (2014) Potentiometric determination of Cd(II) ions using PVC based polyaniline Sn(IV) silicate composite cationexchanger ion-selective membrane electrode. Desalin Water Treat 55:1–8Google Scholar
  140. Naushad M, AL-Othman ZA, Sharma G, Inamuddin (2015a) Kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic investigations for the adsorption of Co(II) ion onto crystal violet modified amberlite IR-120 resin. Ionics 21:1453–1459Google Scholar
  141. Naushad M, Vasudevan S, Sharma G, Kumar A, AL-Othman ZA (2015b) Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies for Hg2+ adsorption from aqueous medium using alizarin red-S-loaded amberlite IRA-400 resin. Desalin Water Treat 57:21863–21869Google Scholar
  142. Naushad M, Mittal A, Rathore M, Gupta V (2015c) Ion-exchange kinetic studies for Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Pb(II) metal ions over a composite cation exchanger. Desalin Water Treat 54:2883–2890Google Scholar
  143. Naushad M, Ahamad T, Sharma G, Al-Muhtaseb AH, Albadarin AB, Alam MM, AL-Othman ZA, Alshehri SM, Ghfar AA (2016) Synthesis and characterization of a new starch/SnO2 nanocomposite for efficient adsorption of toxic Hg2+ metal ion. Chem Eng J 300:306–316Google Scholar
  144. Naushad M, Ahamad T, Basheer Al-Maswari M, Alqadami AA, Alshehri SM (2017) Nickel ferrite bearing nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon as efficient adsorbent for the removal of highly toxic metal ion from aqueous medium. Chem Eng J 330:1351–1360Google Scholar
  145. Nie LX, Jin HY, Wang GL, Tian JG, Lin RC (2008) Study of determination method for heavy metals and harmful elements residues in four traditional Chinese medicine injections. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 33:2764–2767Google Scholar
  146. Odonchimeg S, Oyun J, Javkhlantugs N (2016) Determination of plantinum in rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after separation on sorbent. Int Res J Eng Technol 03:753–757Google Scholar
  147. Oehme I, Wolfbeis OS (1997) Optical sensors for determination of heavy metal ions. Mikrochim Acta 126:177–192Google Scholar
  148. Ogunsuyi HO, Ipinmoroti KO, Amoo IA, Ajayi OO (2001) Adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution on thiolated and activated cellulose adsorbents developed from agricultural wastes. J Technosci 5:75–83Google Scholar
  149. Ojemaye MO, Okoh OO, Okoh AI (2017) Surface modified magnetic nanoparticles as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal removal from wastewater: progress and prospects. Mater Express 7:439–456Google Scholar
  150. Okieimen FE, Okundaye JN (1989) Removal of cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions with thiolated maize (Zea mays) cob meal. Biol Wastes 30:225–230Google Scholar
  151. Okieimen FE, Ogbeifun DE, Nwala GN, Kumsah CA (1985) Binding of cadmium, copper and lead ions by modified cellulosic materials. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 34:866–870Google Scholar
  152. Oliveira V, Sarmiento AM, Gomez-Ariza JK, Nieto JM, Sanchez-Rodas D (2006) New preservation method for inorganic arsenic speciation in acid mine drainage samples. Talanta 69:1182–1189Google Scholar
  153. Othman AM (2006) Potentiometric determination of mercury(II) using a tribromomercurate–rhodamine B PVC membrane sensor. Int J Environ Anal Chem 86:367–379Google Scholar
  154. Oves M, Khan MS, Zaidi A (2013) Biosorption of heavy metals by Bacillus thuringiensis strain OSM29 originating from industrial effluent contaminated north Indian soil. Saudi J Biol Sci 20:121–129Google Scholar
  155. Özverdi A, Erdem M (2006) Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ adsorption from aqueous solutions by pyrite and synthetic iron sulphide. J Hazard Mater 137:626–632Google Scholar
  156. Palmer PT, Jacobs R, Baker PE, Ferguson K, Webber S (2009) Use of fieldportable XRF analyzers for rapid screening of toxic elements in FDA regulated products. J Agric Food Chem 57:2605–2613Google Scholar
  157. Pathania D, Sharma G, Naushad M, Kumar A (2014) Synthesis and characterization of a new nanocomposite cation exchanger polyacrylamide Ce(IV) silicophosphate: photocatalytic and antimicrobial applications. J Ind Eng Chem 20:3596–3603Google Scholar
  158. Pei X, Kang W, Yue W, Bange A, Heineman WR, Papautsky I (2014) Disposable copper-based electrochemical sensor for anodic stripping voltammetry. Anal Chem 86:4893–4900Google Scholar
  159. Poikyo R, Permki P (2003) Acid dissolution methods for heavy metals determination in pine needles. Environ Chem Lett 1:191–195Google Scholar
  160. Pujol L, Evrard D, Serrano KG, Freyssinier M, Cizsak AR, Gros P (2014) Electrochemical sensors and devices for electrochemical assay in water: the French groups contribution. Front Chem Anal Chem 19:1–24Google Scholar
  161. Radu T, Diamond D (2009) Comparison of soil pollution concentrations determined using AAS and portable XRF techniques. J Hazard Mater 171:1168–1171Google Scholar
  162. Radulescu C, Dulama ID, Stihi C, Ionita I, Chilian A, Necula C, Chelarescu ED (2014) Determination of heavy metal levels in water and therapeutic mud by atomic absorption spectrometry. Romanian J Phys 59:1057–1066Google Scholar
  163. Rahman MM, Adil M, Yusof AM, Kamaruzzaman YB, Ansary RH (2014) Removal of heavy metal ions with acid activated carbons derived from oil palm and coconut shells materials 7:3634–3650Google Scholar
  164. Rahmanian O, Amini S, Dinari M (2018) Preparation of zinc/iron layered double hydroxide intercalated by citrate anion for capturing lead(II) from aqueous solution. J Mol Liq 256:9–15Google Scholar
  165. Rangsayatorn N, Upatham ES, Kruatrachue M, Pokethitiyook P, Lanza GR (2002) Phytoremediation potential of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis: biosorption and toxicity studies of cadmium. Environ Pollut 119:45–53Google Scholar
  166. Ratner N, Mandler D (2015) Electrochemical detection of low concentrations of mercury in water using gold nanoparticles. Anal Chem 87:5148–5155Google Scholar
  167. Rether A, Schuster M (2003) Selective separation and recovery of heavy metal ions using water-soluble N-benzoylthiourea modified PAMAM polymers. React Funct Polym 57:13–21Google Scholar
  168. Ruiz-Chancho MJ, Sabe R, Lopez-Sanchez JF, Rubio R, Thomas P (2005) New approaches to the extraction of arsenic species from soils. Microchim Acta 151:241–248Google Scholar
  169. Saeed A, Iqbal M, Akhtar MW (2005) Removal and recovery of lead (II) from single and multimetal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) solutions by crop milling waste (Black gram husk). J Haz Mater 117:65–73Google Scholar
  170. Sahmoune MN (2018) Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters for adsorption of heavy metals by green adsorbents. Environ Chem Lett. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sanaeepur H, Kargari A, Nasernejad B, Amooghin AE, Omidkhah M (2015) A novel Co2+ exchanged zeolite Y/cellulose acetate mixed matrix membrane for CO2/N2 separation. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 60:403–413Google Scholar
  172. Sanchez-Rodas D, GomezAriza JL, Oliveira V (2006) Development of a rapid extraction procedure for speciation of arsenic in chicken meat. Anal Bioanal Chem 385:1172–1177Google Scholar
  173. Sankararamakrishnan N, Jaiswal M, Verma N (2014) Composite nanofloral clusters of carbon nanotubes and activated alumina: an efficient sorbent for heavy metal removal. Chem Eng J 235:1–9Google Scholar
  174. Schaeffer R, Soeroes C, Ipolyi I, Fodor P, Thomaidis NS (2005) Determination of arsenic species in seafood samples from the Aegean Sea by liquid chromatography–(photo-oxidation)–hydride generation–atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 547:109–118Google Scholar
  175. Sevcikova M, Modra H, Slaninova A, Svobodova Z (2011) Metals as a cause of oxidative stress in fish: a review. Vet Med 56:537–546Google Scholar
  176. Shahat A, Awual MR, Khaleque MA, Alam MZ, Naushad M, Chowdhury AMS (2015) Large-pore diameter nano-adsorbent and its application for rapid lead(II) detection and removal from aqueous media. Chem Eng J 273:286–295Google Scholar
  177. Shaidan NH, Eldemerdash U, Awad S (2012) Removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions using fixed-bed ion exchange column technique. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 43:40–45Google Scholar
  178. Shim HY, Lee KS, Lee DS, Jeon DS, Park MS, Shin JS, Lee YK, Goo JW, Kim SB, Chung DY (2014) Application of electrocoagulation and electrolysis on the precipitation of heavy metals and particulate solids in washwater from the soil washing. J Agric Chem Environ 3:130–138Google Scholar
  179. Shirkhanloo H, Mousavi HZ, Rouhollahi A (2011) Preconcentration and determination of heavy metals in water, sediment and biological samples. J Serb Chem Soc 76:1583–1595Google Scholar
  180. Shukla SR, Pai RS (2005) Removal of Pb(II) from solution using cellulose containing materials. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 80:176–183Google Scholar
  181. Silva DH, Costa DA, Takeuchi RM, Santos AL (2011) Fast and simultaneous determination of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in water samples using a solid paraffin-based carbon paste electrode chemically modified with 2-aminothiazole-silica-gel. J Braz Chem Soc 22:1727–1735Google Scholar
  182. Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM (2010) Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of food stuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food Chem Toxicol 48:611–619Google Scholar
  183. Sitko R, Janik P, Zawisza B, Talik E, Margui E, Queralt I (2015) Green approach for ultra trace determination of divalent metal ions and arsenic species using totalreflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and mercapto-modified graphene oxide nanosheets as a novel adsorbent. Anal Chem 87:3535–3542Google Scholar
  184. Sumner ER, Shanmuganathan A, Sideri TC, Willetts SA, Houghton JE, Avery SV (2005) Oxidative protein damage causes chromium toxicity in yeast. Microbiology 151:1939–1948Google Scholar
  185. Szłyk E, Czerniak-Szydłowska A (2004) Determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in margarines and butters by galvanostatic stripping chronopotentiometry. J Agric Food Chem 52:4064–4071Google Scholar
  186. Taha K (2017) Heavy elements analyses in the soil using X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Int J Adv Sci Eng Technol 5:118–120Google Scholar
  187. Talat M, Tripathi P, Srivastava ON (2018) Highly sensitive electrochemical detection of mercury present in the beauty creams using graphene modified glassy carbon electrode. Innov Corros Mater Sci 8:24–31Google Scholar
  188. Tareen AK, Sultan IN, Parakulsuksatid P, Shafi M, Khan A, Khan MW, Hussain S (2014) Detection of heavy metals (Pb, Sb, Al, As) through atomic absorption spectroscopy from drinking water of District Pishin, Balochistan, Pakistan. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 3:299–308Google Scholar
  189. Tatay S, GavinÄa P, Coronado E, Palomares E (2006) Optical mercury sensing using a benzothiazolium hemicyanine dye. Org Lett 8:3857–3860Google Scholar
  190. Tautkus S, Steponeniene L, Kazlauskas R (2004) Determination of iron in natural and mineral waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Serb Chem Soc 69:393–402Google Scholar
  191. Tokcaer and Yetis (2006) Pb(II) biosorption using anaerobically digested sludge. J Hazard Mater 137:1674–1680Google Scholar
  192. Tran T, Leu H, Chiub K, Lin C (2017) Electrochemical treatment for wastewater contained heavy metal the removing of the COD and heavy metal ions. J Chin Chem Soc 64:493–502Google Scholar
  193. Tsade HK (2016) Atomic absorption spectroscopic determination of heavy metal concentrations in Kulufo River, Arbaminch, Gamo Gofa, Ethiopia. J Environ Anal Chem 3:2380–2391Google Scholar
  194. Un UT, Ocal SE (2015) Removal of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni) by electrocoagulation. Int J Environ Sci Dev 6:425. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Valko M, Morris H, Cronin MTD (2005) Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem 12:1161–1208Google Scholar
  196. Varghese AG, Paul SA, Latha MS (2018) Remediation of heavy metals and dyes from wastewater using cellulose-based adsorbents. Environ Chem Lett. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Vukovic GD, Marinkovic AD, Skapin SD, Ristic MD, Aleksic R, Peric-Grujic AA, Uskokovic PS (2011) Removal of lead from water by amino modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Chem Eng J 173:855–865Google Scholar
  198. Wang S, Forzani ES, Tao N (2007) Detection of heavy metal ions in water by high-resolution surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy combined with anodic stripping voltammetry. Anal Chem 79:4427–4432Google Scholar
  199. Wang XH, Deng WY, Xie YY, Wang CY (2013) Selective removal of mercury ions using a chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel adsorbent with three-dimensional network structure. Chem Eng J 228:232–242Google Scholar
  200. Wang H, Wu ZK, Chen BB, He M, Hu B (2015) Chip-based array magnetic solid phase micro extraction on-line coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace heavy metals in cells. Analyst 140:5619–5626Google Scholar
  201. Wierzbicki T, Pyrzynska K (2002) Determination of vanadium content in wine by GF AAS. Chem Anal 47:449–455Google Scholar
  202. Wolfbeis OS (2002) Fiber optic chemical sensors and biosensors. Anal Chem 74:2663–2678Google Scholar
  203. Xia F, Zhang X, Zhou C, Sun D, Dong Y, Liu Z (2010) Simultaneous determination of copper, lead, and cadmium at hexagonal mesoporous silica immobilized quercetin modified carbon paste electrode. J Autom Methods Manag Chem. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Xu RX, Yu XY, Gao C, Liu JH, Compton RG, Huang XJ (2013) Enhancing selectivity in stripping voltammetry by different adsorption behaviors: the use of nanostructured Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides to detect Cd(II). Analyst 138:1812–1818Google Scholar
  205. Yang S, Li J, Shao D, Hu J, Wang X (2009) Adsorption of Ni(II) on oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: effect of contact time, pH, foreign ions and PAA. J Hazard Mater 166:109–116Google Scholar
  206. Yanming S, Dongbin L, Shifeng L, Lihui F, Shuai C, Haque MA (2017) Removal of lead from aqueous solution on glutamate intercalated layered double hydroxide. Arabian J Chem 10:2295–2301Google Scholar
  207. Yao X, Guo Z, Yuan Q, Liu Z, Liu J, Huang X (2014) Exploiting differential electrochemical stripping behaviors of Fe3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions by crystal cutting. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:12203–12213Google Scholar
  208. Yuan S, Chen W, Hu S (2004) Simultaneous determination of cadmium (II) and lead (II) with clay nanoparticles and anthraquinone complexly modified glassy carbon electrode. Talanta 64:922–928Google Scholar
  209. Yuan X, Koh HL, Chui WK (2009) The analysis of heavy metals in Chinese herbal medicine by flow injection–mercury hydride system and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Phytochem Anal 20:293–297Google Scholar
  210. Yuan-Zhen P, Yong-Ming H, Dong-Xing Y, Yan L, Zhen-Bin G (2012) Rapid analysis of heavy metals in coastal seawater using preconcentration with precipitation/co-precipitation on membrane and detection with X-ray fluorescence. Chin J Anal Chem 40:877–882Google Scholar
  211. Zarazúa G, Girón-Romero K, Tejeda S, León CC, Avila-Pérez P (2014) Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of toxic metals in fish tissues. Am J Anal Chem 5:805–811Google Scholar
  212. Zewail TM, Yousef NS (2015) Kinetic study of heavy metal ions removal by ion exchange in batch conical air spouted bed. Alex Eng J 54:83–90Google Scholar
  213. Zhang QX, Wen H, Peng D, Fu Q, Huang XJ (2015) Interesting interference evidences of electrochemical detection of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) on three different morphologies of MnO2 nanocrystals. J Electroanal Chem 739:89–96Google Scholar
  214. Zhao G, Wang H, Liu G (2017) Direct quantification of Cd2+ in the presence of Cu2+ by a combination of anodic stripping voltammetry using a bi-film-modified glassy carbon electrode and an artificial neural network. Sensors 17:1558–1572Google Scholar
  215. Zhong W, Ren T, Zhao L (2016) Determination of Pb (Lead), Cd (Cadmium), Cr (Chromium), Cu (Copper), and Ni (Nickel) in Chinese tea with high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. J Food Drug Anal 24:46–55Google Scholar
  216. Zhu YH, Hu J, Wang JL (2012) Competitive adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) onto xanthate-modified magnetic chitosan. J Hazard Mater 221:155–161Google Scholar
  217. Zhu C, Yang G, Li H, Du D, Lin Y (2015) Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures. Anal Chem 87:230–249Google Scholar
  218. Zhu K, Gao Y, Tan X, Chen C (2016) Polyaniline-modified Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide composites and their application in efficient removal of Cr(VI). ACS Sustain Chem Eng 4:4361–4369Google Scholar
  219. Zhu J, Fu Q, Qiu G, Liu Y, Hu H, Huang Q, Violante A (2019) Influence of low molecular weight anionic ligands on the sorption of heavy metals by soil constituents: a review. Environ Chem Lett. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of KashmirHazratbal, SrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations