Biogas upgrading by cryogenic techniques
- 31 Downloads
The scarcity of fossil fuels and the worldwide pollution have led the scientific community to seek renewable energy alternatives. In particular, biogas has become a potential alternative fuel to be employed instead of traditional energies. Biogas is mainly composed by methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). To obtain pure biomethane, a proper biogas upgrading to remove CO2 and other minority compounds is needed. For this purpose, upgrading processes have been developed, such as water or chemical scrubbing, membrane separation, pressure swing adsorption, and cryogenic techniques. Cryogenic techniques represent a good option to be optimized because these techniques yield high-purity products, ranging between 95 and 99%. Therefore, we present here a review on cryogenic techniques. In spite of many advantages, the high-energy penalty makes cryogenic techniques commercially inapplicable actually. Several authors have proposed novel configurations to reduce the energy consumption. Cryogenic packed-bed technology was recently tested in a coal-fired plant with an energy consumption of 1.8 MJ/kg CO2. Economic analyses were carried out for anti-sublimation CO2 capture, giving a cost of 34.5 €/ton CO2. Among the different alternatives of cryogenic hybrid systems, cryogenic membrane processes stand out due to a 54.4% of capital cost savings.
KeywordsBiogas upgrading Cryogenic techniques Hybrid cryogenic systems CO2 utilization
This work was supported by University of Seville through V PPIT-US.
- Baena-Moreno FM, Rodríguez-Galán M, Vega F et al (2018b) Regeneration of sodium hydroxide from a biogas upgrading unit through the synthesis of precipitated calcium carbonate: an experimental influence study of reaction parameters. Processes 6:205. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Clodic D, Paris M De, Hitti R El, et al (2005a) CO2 capture by anti-sublimation thermo-economic process evaluation. In: 4th annual conference on carbon capture and sequestrationGoogle Scholar
- Clodic D, Younes M, Bill A (2005b) Test results of CO2 capture by anti-sublimation capture efficiency and energy consumption for boiler plants. In: Proceedings of the 7th international conference on greenhouse gas control technologies, vol 5Google Scholar
- Deremince B, Königsberger S (2017) Statistical report of the European Biogas Association, p 20Google Scholar
- Ebrahimzadeh E, Matagi J, Fazlollahi F, Baxter LL (2016) Alternative extractive distillation system for CO2-ethane azeotrope separation in enhanced oil recovery processes. Appl Therm Eng 96:39–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.11.082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- European Biogas Association. Annual report 2018. http://european-biogas.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/EBA-Annual-Report-2018.pdf. Accessed 20 Feb 2019
- Johansson N (2008) Production of liquid biogas, LBG, with cryogenic and conventional upgrading technology: description of systems and evaluations of energy balances. http://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/record/4468178
- Persson M, Jonsson O, Wellinger A (2007) Biogas upgrading to vehicle fuel standards and grid. IEA Bioenergy 1–32Google Scholar
- Romeo LM, Bolea I, Escosa JM (2008) Integration of power plant and amine scrubbing to reduce CO2 capture costs. Appl Therm Eng 28:1039–1046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2007.06.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Song C, Liu Q, Ji N et al (2017a) Advanced cryogenic CO2 capture process based on stirling coolers by heat integration. Appl Therm Eng 114:887–895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.12.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tan Y, Nookuea W, Li H et al (2017a) Evaluation of viscosity and thermal conductivity models for CO2 mixtures applied in CO2 cryogenic process in carbon capture and storage (CCS). Appl Therm Eng 123:721–733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.05.124 CrossRefGoogle Scholar