Waste control by waste: efficient removal of bisphenol A with steel slag, a novel activator of peroxydisulfate
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Activated persulfates are efficient reagents for oxidation of organic contaminants and water treatment. Various compounds are currently used to activate persulfates, but there is a need for cheap and efficient activators. Here, we report the first use of steel slag, an industrial solid waste, as a solid activator for peroxydisulfate activation. We tested this system for bisphenol A degradation. Results indicate that about 70% of bisphenol A can be removed within 1 h. Conditions were 50 μg/L of bisphenol A, 2 g/L of peroxydisulfate, 3 g/L of steel slag and temperature of 298 K. The components and surface morphology of unused and recycled steel slag were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, whereas the main reactive oxygen species were elucidated by using radical scavengers. Findings show that both base oxides and iron oxides are responsible for peroxydisulfate activation. A redox mechanism involving liquid and solid phases is proposed. Overall, this study reveals the successful recycling of steel slag to activate persulfates for water treatment, following the principle of ‘waste control by waste.’
KeywordsSteel slag Peroxydisulfate Base activation Bisphenol A Advanced oxidation process
The authors are grateful to the support of National Natural Science Foundation (Project No. 51779211).