Advertisement

Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 969–1007 | Cite as

Microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation processes for the degradation of dyes in water

  • Priyanshu Verma
  • Sujoy Kumar Samanta
Review

Abstract

Contamination of water bodies with dyes has become a serious global concern affecting the whole biosphere. Microwave irradiation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) have recently gained importance as efficient remediation methods. Indeed, microwave offers special features such as fast, uniform, selective and controlled heating that result in a rapid reaction rate, whereas advanced oxidation processes are able to mineralize any organic pollutant. Here we review microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation processes for the removal or degradation of synthetic dyes, and we compare with conventional treatment methods. We found that microwave-enhanced AOP improve the efficiency of dye degradation. However, cost analyses reveal an economic limitation of microwave-enhanced processes.

Keywords

Microwave Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) Dyes Microwave-enhanced processes Wastewater treatment Cost analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Indian Institute of Technology Delhi for providing some required soft information for this study. The authors would also like to express their regard and appreciation to the research community whose scientific data and research findings as published in their referred studies have been used to add a great value and substance to this review article. Finally, the authors are very grateful to the anonymous reviewers and Prof. Eric Lichtfouse, Chief Editor of Environmental Chemistry Letters for their constructive comments/suggestions that have benefitted us substantially to improvise the quality of this review article.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abrahart EN (1977) Dyes and their intermediates. Chemical Publishing, New York, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  2. Ajmal A, Majeedb I, Malika RN et al (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes on Cu2O–CuO/TiO2 anatase powders. J Environ Chem Eng 4:2138–2146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.03.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akarslan F, Demiralay H (2015) Effects of textile materials harmful to human health. Acta Phys Pol A 128(2B):B407.  https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.128.B-407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alfaro MAQ, Ferro S, Martínez-Huitle CA, Vong YM (2006) Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment. J Braz Chem Soc 17(2):227–236.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532006000200003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ali H (2010) Biodegradation of synthetic dyes—a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 213:251–273.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-010-0382-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Qodah Z, Al-Shannag M, Bani-Melhem K, Assirey E, Yahya MA, Al-Shawabkeh A (2018) Free radical-assisted electrocoagulation processes for wastewater treatment. Environ Chem Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-018-0711-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alver E, Metin AÜ (2012) Anionic dye removal from aqueous solutions using modified zeolite: adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies. Chem Eng J 200–202:59–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.06.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Appels L, Houtmeyers S, Degrève J, Van Impe J, Dewil R (2013) Influence of microwave pre-treatment on sludge solubilization and pilot scale semi-continuous anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol 128:598–603.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Appleton TJ, Colder RI, Kingman SW, Lowndes IS, Read AG (2005) Microwave technology for energy-efficient processing of waste. Appl Energy 81(1):85–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2004.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asgher M, Bhatti HN (2012) Evaluation of thermodynamics and effect of chemical treatments on sorption potential of (Citrus) waste biomass for removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions. Ecol Eng 38(1):79–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Avlonitis SA, Poulios I, Sotiriou D, Pappas M, Moutesidis K (2008) Simulated cotton dye effluents treatment and reuse by nanofiltration. Desalination 221:259–267.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.01.082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ayadi I, Souissi Y, Jlassi I, Peixoto F, Mnif W (2016) Chemical synonyms, molecular structure and toxicological risk assessment of synthetic textile dyes: a critical review. J Develop Drugs 5(1):1000151.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-6631.1000151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Banat F, Al-Asheh S, Nusair M (2005) Photodegradation of methylene blue dye by the UV/H2O2 and UV/acetone oxidation processes. Desalination 181(1–3):225–232.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2005.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bansal RC, Goyal M (2005) Activated carbon adsorption. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barragan BE, Costa C, Carmen Marquez M (2007) Biodegradation of azo dyes by bacteria inoculated on solid media. Dyes Pigments 75:73–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2006.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barros WRP, Steter JR, Lanza MRV, Motheo AJ (2014) Degradation of amaranth dye in alkaline medium by ultrasonic cavitation coupled with electrochemical oxidation using a boron-doped diamond anode. Electrochim Acta 143:180–187.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2014.07.141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baruah S, Dutta J (2009) Nanotechnology applications in pollution sensing and degradation in agriculture: a review. Environ Chem Lett 7:191–204.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-009-0228-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bautitz IR, Nogueira RFP (2007) Degradation of tetracycline by photo-Fenton process—solar irradiation and matrix effect. J Photochem Photobiol A 187:33–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2006.09.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Behnajady MA, Modirshahla N (2006) Evaluation of electrical energy per order (EEO) with kinetic modeling on photooxidative degradation of CI acid orange 7 in a tubular continuous-flow photoreactor. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:553–557.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie050111c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Behnajady MA, Modirshahla N, Shokri M (2004) Photodestruction of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solutions by UV/H2O2: influence of operational parameters. Chemosphere 55:129–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.10.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Behnajady MA, Vahid B, Modirshahla N, Shokri M (2009) Evaluation of electrical energy per order (EEO) with kinetic modeling on the removal of Malachite Green by US/UV/H2O2 process. Desalination 249:99–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2008.07.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bi X, Wang P, Jiao C, Cao H (2009) Degradation of remazol golden yellow dye wastewater in microwave enhanced ClO2 catalytic oxidation process. J Hazard Mater 168:895–900.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.02.108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bolton JR, Bircher KG, Tumas W, Tolman CA (2001) Figures-of-merit for the technical development and application of advanced oxidation technologies for both electric- and solar-driven systems (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl Chem 73(4):627–637.  https://doi.org/10.1351/pac200173040627 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bottrel S, Amorim C, Ramos V, Romão G, Leao M (2015) Ozonation and peroxone oxidation of ethylenethiourea in water: operational parameter optimization and by-product identification. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:903–908.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3616-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bouaziz I, Chiron C, Abdelhedi R, Savall A, Groenen Serrano K (2014) Treatment of dilute methylene blue-containing wastewater by coupling sawdust adsorption and electrochemical regeneration. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:8565–8572.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2785-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Buthelezi SP, Olaniran AO, Pillay B (2012) Textile dye removal from waste- water effluents using bioflocculants produced by indigenous bacterial isolates. Molecules 17(12):14260–14274.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules171214260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cai YJ, Lin LN, Xia DS, Zeng QF, Zhu HL (2011) Degradation of reactive brilliant red X-3B dye by microwave electrodeless UV irradiation. Clean Soil Air Water 39(1):68–73.  https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201000107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cai MQ, Zhu YZ, Wei ZS, Hu JQ, Pan SD, Xiao RY, Dong CY, Jin MC (2017) Rapid decolorization of dye Orange G by microwave enhanced Fenton-like reaction with delafossite-type CuFeO2. Sci Total Environ 580:966–973.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chatterjee S, Chatterjee S, Chatterjee BP, Guha AK (2007) Adsorptive removal of congo red, a carcinogenic textile dye by chitosan hydrobeads: binding mechanism, equilibrium and kinetics. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 299(1):146–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.11.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cheremisinoff NP (2002) Handbook of water and wastewater treatment technologies. Butterworth Heinemann, Boston.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-075067498-0/50000-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chiang LC, Chang JE, Wen TC (1995) Indirect oxidation effect in electrochemical oxidation treatment of landfill leachate. Water Res 29:671–678.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(94)00146-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Christie RM (2007) Environmental aspects of textile dyeing. Woodhead, Boca Raton.  https://doi.org/10.1533/9781845693091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Církva V, Zabová H (2010) Thin nanoporous titania films on the electrodeless discharge lamps for photocatalysis. In: Castello GK (ed) Handbook of photocatalysts: preparation, structure and applications. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 103–151Google Scholar
  34. Clarke E, Anliker R (1980) Organic dyes and pigments. Handb Environ Chem 3(Part A):181–215.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-38522-6_7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Crane RA, Scott TB (2012) Nanoscale zero-valent iron: future prospects for an emerging water treatment technology. J Hazard Mater 211–212:112–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.11.073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cravotto G, Binello A, Di Carlo S, Orio L, Wu Z-L, Ondruschka B (2010) Oxidative degradation of chlorophenol derivatives promoted by microwaves or power ultrasound: a mechanism investigation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 17:674–687.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-009-0253-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Bioresour Technol 97(9):1061–1085.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Curcio MS, Oliveira MP, Waldman WR, Sánchez B, Canela MC (2015) TiO2 sol–gel for formaldehyde photodegradation using polymeric support: photocatalysis efficiency versus material stability. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:800–809.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2683-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Daneshvar N, Aleboyeh A, Khataee AR (2005) The evaluation of electrical energy per order (EEo) for photooxidative decolorization of four textile dye solutions by the kinetic model. Chemosphere 59:761–767.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dantas RF, Contreras S, Sans C, Esplugas S (2008) Sulfamethoxazole abatement by means of ozonation. J Hazard Mater 150:790–794.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.05.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dasgupta N, Ranjan S, Ramalingam C (2017) Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture and water quality management. Environ Chem Lett 15(4):591–605.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-017-0648-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Demirbas A (2009) Agricultural based activated carbons for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions: a review. J Hazard Mater 167(1–3):1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Diagne M, Sharma VK, Oturan N, Oturan MA (2014) Depollution of indigo dye by anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton using B-doped diamond anode. Environ Chem Lett 12:219–224.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-013-0437-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dinçer AR, Günes Y, Karakaya N, Günes E (2007) Comparison of activated carbon and bottom ash for removal of reactive dye from aqueous solution. Bioresour Technol 98:834–839.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.03.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dogan D, Turkdemir H (2005) Electrochemical oxidation of textile dye indigo. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 80:916–923.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. dos Santos AB, Cervantes FJ, van Lier JB (2007) Review paper on current technologies for decolourisation of textile wastewaters: perspectives for anaerobic biotechnology. Bioresour Technol 98:2369–2385.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.11.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Duan X, Sun H, Kang J, Wang Y, Indrawirawan S, Wang S (2015) Insights into heterogeneous catalysis of persulfate activation on dimensional-structured nanocarbons. ACS Catal 5:4629–4636.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.5b00774 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dutta K, Mukhopadhyay S, Bhattacharjee S, Chaudhuri B (2001) Chemical oxidation of methylene blue using a Fenton-like reaction. J Hazard Mater 84:57–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(01)00202-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ebenezer AV, Arulazhagan P, Kumar SA, Yeom I-T, Banu JR (2015) Effect of deflocculation on the efficiency of low-energy microwave pretreatment and anaerobic biodegradation of waste activated sludge. Appl Energy 145:104–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fang X, Xiao J, Yang S, He H, Sun C (2015) Investigation on microwave absorbing properties of loaded MnFe2O4 and degradation of reactive brilliant red X-3B. Appl Catal B Environ 162:544–550.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.07.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Faouzi AM, Nasr B, Abdellatif G (2007) Electrochemical degradation of anthraquinone dye Alizarin Red S by anodic oxidation on boron-doped diamond. Dyes Pigments 73:86–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2005.10.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fast SA, Gude VG, Truax DD, Martin J, Magbanua BS (2017) A critical evaluation of advanced oxidation processes for emerging contaminants removal. Environ Process 4:283–302.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-017-0207-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ferrari C, Longo I, Tombari E, Bramanti E (2009) A novel microwave photochemical reactor for the oxidative decomposition of Acid Orange 7 azo dye by MW/UV/H2O2 process. J Photochem Photobiol A 204:115–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2009.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ferrari C, Longo I, Tombari E, Gasperini L (2010) A new integrated photoreactor for microwave assisted decolorization Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solutions. Int J Chem React Eng 8:A72.  https://doi.org/10.2202/1542-6580.2134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Frijters CTMJ, Vos RH, Scheffer G, Mulder R (2006) Decolorizing and detoxifying textile wastewater, containing both soluble and insoluble dyes, in a full scale combined anaerobic/aerobic system. Water Res 40:1249–1257.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.01.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fu Y, Viraraghavan T (2001) Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review. Bioresour Technol 79(3):251–262.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00028-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fu J, Xu Z, Li QS, Chen S, An SQ, Zeng QF, Zhu HL (2010) Treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 by zero-valent iron/activated carbon combined with microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite. J Environ Sci 22:512–518.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(09)60142-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fu F, Dionysiou DD, Liu H (2014) The use of zero-valent iron for groundwater remediation and wastewater treatment: a review. J Hazard Mater 267:194–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.12.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fujishima A, Zhang X, Tryk DA (2007) Heterogeneous photocatalysis: from water photolysis to applications in environmental cleanup. Int J Hydrogen Energy 32:2664–2672.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2006.09.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gao YQ, Gao NY, Deng Y, Yang YQ, Ma Y (2012) Ultraviolet (UV) light-activated persulfate oxidation of sulfamethazine in water. Chem Eng J 195:248–253.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.04.084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gao J, Yang S, Li N, Meng L, Wang F, He H, Sun C (2016) Rapid degradation of azo dye Direct Black BN by magnetic MgFe2O4-SiC under microwave radiation. Appl Surf Sci 379:140–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.04.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. García MC, Mora M, Esquivel D, Foster JE, Rodero A, Jiménez-Sanchidrián C, Romero-Salguero FJ (2017) Microwave atmospheric pressure plasma jets for wastewater treatment: degradation of methylene blue as a model dye. Chemosphere 180:239–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.03.126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Giokas DL, Vlessidis AG (2007) Application of a novel chemometric approach to the determination of aqueous photolysis rates of organic compounds in natural waters. Talanta 71:288–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2006.03.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gligorovski S, Strekowski R, Barbati S, Vione D (2015) Environmental implications of hydroxyl radicals (·OH). Chem Rev 115:13051–13092.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr500310b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gole VL, Gogate PR (2014) Degradation of brilliant green dye using combined treatment strategies based on different irradiations. Sep Purif Technol 133:212–220.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2014.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gude VG, Martinez-Guerra E (2017) Green chemistry with process intensification for sustainable biodiesel production. Environ Chem Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-017-0680-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gupta VK, Suhas (2009) Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal—a review. J Environ Manag 90(8):2313–2342.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.11.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gupta VK, Kumar R, Nayak A, Saleh TA, Barakat MA (2013) Adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution onto carbon nanotubes: a review. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 193–194:24–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2013.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hájek M (2006) Microwave catalysis in organic synthesis. In: Loupy A (ed) Microwaves in organic synthesis. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 615–652.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527619559.ch13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hariharasuthan R, Rao AN, Bhaskaran A (2013) Adsorption studies on reactive blue 4 by varying the concentration of MgO in Sorel’s cement. Int J Eng Sci 2(1):287–292Google Scholar
  71. He Z, Sun C, Yang S, Ding Y, He H, Wang Z (2009a) Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B by Bi2WO6 with electron accepting agent under microwave irradiation: mechanism and pathway. J Hazard Mater 162:1477–1486.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. He H, Yang S, Yu K, Ju Y, Sun C, Wang L (2009b) Microwave induced catalytic degradation of crystal violet in nano-nickel dioxide suspensions. J Hazard Mater 173:393–400.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hernandez R, Zappi M, Colucci J, Jones R (2002) Comparing the performance of various advanced oxidation processes for treatment of acetone contaminated water. J Hazard Mater 92:33–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(01)00371-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Herrero MA, Kremsner JM, Kappe CO (2008) Nonthermal microwave effects revisited: on the importance of internal temperature monitoring and agitation in microwave chemistry. J Org Chem 73:36–47.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jo7022697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hidaka H, Saitou A, Honjou H, Hosoda K, Moriya M, Serpone N (2007) Microwave assisted dechlorination of polychlorobenzenes by hypophosphite anions in aqueous alkaline media in the presence of Pd-loaded active carbon. J Hazard Mater 148:22–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.01.143 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Homem V, Santos L (2011) Degradation and removal methods of antibiotics from aqueous matrices-a review. J Environ Manag 92(10):2304–2347.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.05.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hong J, Sun C, Yang SG, Liu YZ (2006) Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in TiO2 aqueous suspensions using microwave powered electrodeless discharge lamps. J Hazard Mater 133:162–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hong J, Ta N, Yanga S, Liu Y, Sun C (2007) Microwave-assisted direct photolysis of bromophenol blue using electrodeless discharge lamps. Desalination 214:62–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2006.09.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hong J, Yuan N, Wang Y, Qi S (2012) Efficient degradation of Rhodamine B in microwave-H2O2 system at alkaline pH. Chem Eng J 191:364–368.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.03.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Horikoshi S, Serpone N (2014) Role of microwaves in heterogeneous catalytic systems. Catal Sci Technol 4:1197–1210.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C3CY00753G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Horikoshi S, Hidaa H, Serpone N (2002a) Environmental remediation by an integrated microwave/microwave-assisted degradation of Rhodamine-B dye in aqueous TiO2 dispersions. Environ Sci Technol 36(6):1357–1366.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es010941r CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Horikoshi S, Hidaka H, Serpone N (2002b) Environmental remediation by an integrated microwave/UV-illumination method II. Characteristics of a novel UV–VIS–microwave integrated irradiation device in photodegradation processes. J Photochem Photobiol A 153:185–189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(02)00263-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Horikoshi S, Hidaka H, Serpone N (2003a) Hydroxyl radicals in microwave photocatalysis. Enhanced formation of OH radicals probed by ESR techniques in microwave-assisted photocatalysis in aqueous TiO2 dispersions. Chem Phys Lett 376:475–480.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(03)01007-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Horikoshi S, Saitou A, Hidaka H, Serpone N (2003b) Environmental remediation by an integrated microwave/UV illumination method. V. Thermal and nonthermal effects of microwave radiation on the photocatalyst and on the photodegradation of Rhodamine-B under UV/Vis radiation. Environ Sci Technol 37(24):5813–5822.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es030326i CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Houtmeyers S, Degrève J, Willems K, Dewil R, Appels L (2014) Comparing the influence of low power ultrasonic and microwave pre-treatments on the solubilisation and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Bioresour Technol 171:44–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.08.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Huddersman K, Palitsin AV (2017) Modelling and simulation of a novel pilot-scale microwave assisted catalytic reactor for continuous flow treatment of wastewaters. In: Mannina G (ed) Frontiers in wastewater treatment and modelling. Springer, Berlin, pp 644–649.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58421-8_101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hunger K (2003) Industrial dyes: chemistry, properties, applications. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.  https://doi.org/10.1002/3527602011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ikehata K, Naghashkar NJ, El-Din MG (2006) Degradation of aqueous pharmaceuticals by ozonation and advanced oxidation processes: a review. Ozone Sci Eng 28:353–414.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01919510600985937 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jara CC, Fino D, Specchia V, Saracco G, Spinelli P (2007) Electrochemical removal of antibiotics from wastewater. Appl Catal B 70:479–487.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2005.11.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ju YM, Yang SG, Ding YC, Sun C, Zhang A, Wang L (2008) Microwave-assisted rapid photocatalytic degradation of malachite green in TiO2 suspensions: mechanism and pathways. J Phys Chem A 112:11172–11177.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp804439z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ju YM, Yang SG, Ding YC, Sun C, Gu CG, He Z, Qin C, He H, Xu B (2009) Microwave-enhanced H2O2-based process for treatment aqueous malachite green solutions: intermediates and degradation mechanism. J Hazard Mater 171:123–132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jung SC (2011) The microwave-assisted photo-catalytic degradation of organic dyes. Water Sci Technol 63(7):1491–1498.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2011.393 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kadirvelu K, Kavipriya M, Karthika C, Radhika M, Vennilamani N, Pattabhi S (2003) Utilization of various agricultural wastes for activated carbon preparation and application for the removal of dyes and metal ions from aqueous solutions. Bioresour Technol 87:129–132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00201-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kanakaraju D, Glass BD, Oelgemöller M (2014) Titanium dioxide photocatalysis for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. Environ Chem Lett 12:27–47.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-013-0428-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kappe CO (2004) Controlled microwave heating in modern organic synthesis. Angew Chem 43:6250–6284.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200400655 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kariyajjanavar P, Narayana J, Nayaka YA (2013) Degradation of textile dye C.I. Vat Black 27 by electrochemical method by using carbon electrodes. J Environ Chem Eng 1(4):975–980.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2013.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kenge AA, Liao PH, Lo KV (2009) Treating solid dairy manure using microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process. J Environ Sci Health B 44(6):606–612.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03601230903000693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Khan S, Malik A (2014) Environmental and health effects of textile industry wastewater. In: Malik A, Grohmann E, Akhtar R (eds) Environmental deterioration and human health. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 55–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7890-0_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Khataee AR, Khataee HR (2008) Photooxidative removal of the herbicide Acid Blue 9 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide: modeling of the reaction for evaluation of electrical energy per order (EEO). J Environ Sci Health B 43:562–568.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03601230802234385 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kim SJ, Kim SC, Seo SG, Lee DJ, Lee H, Park SH, Jung SC (2011) Photocatalyzed destruction of organic dyes using microwave/UV/O3/H2O2/TiO2 oxidation system. Catal Today 164(1):384–390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2010.10.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kim T, Lee J, Lee KH (2014) Microwave heating of carbon-based solid materials. Carbon Lett 15(1):15–24.  https://doi.org/10.5714/CL.2014.15.1.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Klán P, Literák J, Hájek M (1999) The electrodeless discharge lamp: a prospective tool for photochemistry. J Photochem Photobiol A 128:145–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(99)00165-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Klm YB, Ahn JH (2014) Microwave-assisted decolorization and decomposition of methylene blue with persulfate. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 95:208–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2014.03.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kobya M, Demirbas E, Senturk E, Ince M (2005) Adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from apricot stone. Bioresour Technol 96(13):1518–1521.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kommineni S, Zoeckler J, Stocking A, Liang PS, Flores A, Rodriguez R, Browne T, Roberts PR, Brown A (2000) Chapter 3.0 Advanced oxidation processes. In: Melin G (ed) Treatment technologies for removal of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from drinking water: air stripping, advanced oxidation processes, granular actived carbon and synthetic resin sorbents, 2nd edn. National Water Research Institute, Fountain Valley, pp 109–208Google Scholar
  106. Kraft A (2007) Doped diamond: a compact review on a new, versatile electrode material. Int J Electrochem Sci 2:355–385Google Scholar
  107. Krishnan S, Rawindran H, Sinnathambi CM, Lim JW (2017) Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes used in remediation of industrial wastewater laden with recalcitrant pollutants. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 206:012089.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/206/1/012089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kuan W, Chen C, Hu C, Tzou Y (2013) Kinetic modeling for microwave-enhanced degradation of methylene blue using manganese oxide. Int J Photoenergy.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/916849 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lacombe S, Fresno F, Štangar UL (2014) Photocatalysis: new highlights from JEP 2013. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(19):11111–11115.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3192-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lanzarini-Lopes M, Garcia-Segura S, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P (2017) Electrical energy per order and current efficiency for electrochemical oxidation of p-chlorobenzoic acid with boron-doped diamond anode. Chemosphere 188:304–311.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.08.145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lazar T (2005) Color chemistry: synthesis, properties, and applications of organic dyes and pigments. Color Res Appl 30(4):313–314.  https://doi.org/10.1002/col.20132 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Leitner NKV (2017) Sulfate radical ion-based AOPs (Chapter 10). In: Stefan MI (ed) Advanced oxidation processes for water treatment: fundamentals and applications. IWA Publishing, London, pp 429–460Google Scholar
  113. Li Y, Zheng L, Wu T (2012) Oxidation treatment of reactive red X-3B dyestuff wastewater by microwave-Fenton process. J Shenyang Jianzhu Univ (Nat Sci) 28(6):1093–1097Google Scholar
  114. Liang C, Su HW (2009) Identification of sulfate and hydroxyl radicals in thermally activated persulfate. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:5558–5562.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie9002848 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Liang R, Hu A, Hatat-Fraile M, Zhou N (2014) Fundamentals on adsorption, membrane filtration, and advanced oxidation processes for water treatment. In: Hu A, Apblett A (eds) Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–45.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-06578-6_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Literák J, Klán P (2000) The electrodeless discharge lamp: a prospective tool for photochemistry Part 2. Scope and limitation. J Photochem Photobiol A 137:29–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(00)00335-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Liu SQ (2012) Magnetic semiconductor nano-photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants. Environ Chem Lett 10:209–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-011-0348-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Liu ST, Huang J, Ye Y, Zhang AB, Pan L, Chen XG (2013) Microwave enhanced Fenton process for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Chem Eng J 215–216:586–590.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Liu ST, Zhang AB, Yan KK, Ye Y, Chen XG (2014a) Microwave-enhanced catalytic degradation of methylene blue by porous MFe2O4 (M = Mn, Co) nanocomposites: pathways and mechanisms. Sep Purif Technol 135:35–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2014.07.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Liu X, An S, Shi W, Yang Q, Zhang L (2014b) Microwave-induced catalytic oxidation of malachite green under magnetic Cu-ferrites: new insight into the degradation mechanism and pathway. J Mol Catal A Chem 395:243–250.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2014.08.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Liu X, Zhang T, Xu D, Zhang L (2016) Microwave-assisted catalytic degradation of crystal violet with barium ferrite nanomaterial. Ind Eng Chem Res 55:11869–11877.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.6b01762 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lo KV, Liao PH (2011) Microwave enhanced advanced oxidation in the treatment of dairy manure. In: Chandra U (ed) Microwave heating. InTech-Open Access Publisher, Rijeka, pp 91–106.  https://doi.org/10.5772/24878 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lo KV, Ning R, de Oliveira CKY, Zetter MD, Srinivasan A, Liao PH (2017) Application of microwave oxidation process for sewage sludge treatment in a continuous-flow system. J Environ Eng 143(9):04017050.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lopes A, Martins S, Morao A, Magrinho M, Gonçalves I (2004) Degradation of a textile dye C.I. direct red 80 by electrochemical processes. Port Electrochim Acta 22:279–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Lovato ME, Gilliard MB, Cassano AE, Martín CA (2015) Kinetics of the degradation of n-butyl benzyl phthalate using O3/UV, direct photolysis, direct ozonation and UV effects. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:909–917.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2796-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mahamuni NN, Adewuyi YG (2010) Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) involving ultrasound for waste water treatment: a review with emphasis on cost estimation. Ultrason Sonochem 17:990–1003.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2009.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mahmood MA, Baruah S, Anal AK, Dutta J (2012) Heterogeneous photocatalysis for removal of microbes from water. Environ Chem Lett 10:145–151.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-011-0347-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Malik R, Ramteke DS, Wate SR (2007) Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon. Waste Manag 27:1129–1138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2006.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mandal S, Natarajan S (2015) Adsorption and catalytic degradation of organic dyes in water using ZnO/ZnxFe3−xO4 mixed oxides. J Environ Chem Eng 3(2):1185–1193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2015.04.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Manenti DR, Soares PA, Silva TFCV et al (2015) Performance evaluation of different solar advanced oxidation processes applied to the treatment of a real textile dyeing wastewater. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:833–845.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2767-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Mao Y, Xi Z, Wang W, Ma C, Yue Q (2015) Kinetics of Solvent Blue and Reactive Yellow removal using microwave radiation in combination with nanoscale zero-valent iron. J Environ Sci 30:164–172.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2014.09.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mao Y, Xu J, Ma C (2016) A continuous microwave/nZVI treatment system for malachite green removal: system setup and parameter optimization. Desalin Water Treat 57:24395–24405.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2016.1141326 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Matzek LW, Carter KE (2016) Activated persulfate for organic chemical degradation: a review. Chemosphere 151:178–188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.02.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Mawioo PM, Hooijmans CM, Garcia HA, Brdjanovic D (2016) Microwave treatment of faecal sludge from intensively used toilets in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya. J Environ Manag 184:575–584.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.10.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Měšťánková H, Mailhot G, Jirkovský J, Krýsa J, Bolte M (2009) Effect of iron speciation on the photodegradation of Monuron in combined photocatalytic systems with immobilized or suspended TiO2. Environ Chem Lett 7:127–132.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-008-0145-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Mezohegyi G, van der Zee FP, Font J, Fortuny A, Fabregat A (2012) Towards advanced aqueous dye removal processes: a short review on the versatile role of activated carbon. J Environ Manag 102:148–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.02.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Michael I, Frontistis Z, Fatta-Kassinos D (2013) Chapter 11 Removal of pharmaceuticals from environmentally relevant matrices by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In: Barcelo D (ed) Comprehensive analytical chemistry (vol 62: analysis, removal, effects and risk of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle), 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 345–407.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-444-62657-8.00011-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Milenova K, Avramova I, Eliyas A, Blaskov V, Stambolova I, Kassabova N (2014) Application of activated M/ZnO (M = Mn Co, Ni, Cu, Ag) in photocatalytic degradation of diazo textile coloring dye. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(21):12249–12256.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2955-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Miralles-Cuevas S, Oller I, Pérez JAS, Malato S (2015) Application of solar photo-Fenton at circumneutral pH to nanofiltration concentrates for removal of pharmaceuticals in MWTP effluents. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:846–855.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2871-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Molla A, Sahu M, Hussain S (2016) Synthesis of tunable band gap semiconductor nickel sulphide nanoparticles: rapid and round the clock degradation of organic dyes. Sci Rep 6:26034.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep26034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Monteiro RAR, Lopes FVS, Boaventura RAR, Silva AMT, Vilar VJP (2015) Synthesis and characterization of N-modified titania nanotubes for photocatalytic applications. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:810–819.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2943-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Moradi SE, Dadfarnia S, Shabani AMH, Emami S (2017) Microwave-enhanced Fenton-like degradation by surface-modified metal-organic frameworks as a promising method for removal of dye from aqueous samples. Turk J Chem 41:426–439.  https://doi.org/10.3906/kim-1607-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Moreira AJ, Pinheiro BS, Araújo AF, Freschi GPG (2016) Evaluation of atrazine degradation applied to different energy systems. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:18502–18511.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6831-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mudhoo A, Sharma SK (2011) Microwave irradiation technology in waste sludge and wastewater treatment research. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 41(11):999–1066.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10643380903392767 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Müler P, Klán P, Církva V (2003) The electrodeless discharge lamp: a prospective tool for photochemistry: Part 4. Temperature and envelope material dependent emission characteristics. J Photochem Photobiol A 158:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(03)00101-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Müler P, Klán P, Církva V (2005) The electrodeless discharge lamp: a prospective tool for photochemistry. Part 5: fill material-dependent emission characteristics. J Photochem Photobiol A 171:51–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2004.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Nascimento UM, Azevedo EB (2013) Microwaves and their coupling to advanced oxidation processes: enhanced performance in pollutants degradation. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 48(9):1056–1072.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2013.773822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Nidheesh PV, Gandhimathi R (2014a) Comparative removal of Rhodamine B from aqueous solution by electro-Fenton and electro-Fenton-like processes. Clean Soil Air Water 42(6):779–784.  https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201300093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Nidheesh PV, Gandhimathi R (2014b) Electrolytic removal of Rhodamine B from aqueous solution by peroxicoagulation process. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:8585–8594.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2775-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Nüchter M, Müller U, Ondruschka B, Tied A, Lautenschlager W (2003) Review: microwave-assisted chemical reactions. Chem Eng Technol 26:1207–1216.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.200301836 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Nuengmatcha P, Chanthai S, Mahachai R, Oh WC (2016) Visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B and industrial dyes (texbrite BAC-L and texbrite NFW-L) by ZnO-graphene-TiO2 composite. J Environ Chem Eng 4(2):2170–2177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.03.045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Oncu NB, Balcioglu IA (2013) Microwave-assisted chemical oxidation of biological waste sludge: simultaneous micropollutant degradation and sludge solubilization. Bioresour Technol 146:126–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.07.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Osman H, Su Z, Ma X (2017) Efficient photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye using ZnO/graphitic C3N4 nanocomposites synthesized by microwave. Environ Chem Lett 15(3):435–441.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-017-0604-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pan F, Luo Y, Zhang LR, Fu J (2011) Degradation of reactive brilliant red X-3B by zero-valent iron/activated carbon system in the presence of microwave irradiation. Water Sci Technol 64(12):2345–2351.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2011.827 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Panizza M, Cerisola G (2009) Direct and mediated anodic oxidation of organic pollutants. Chem Rev 109:6541–6569.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr9001319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Park SH, Kim SJ, Seo SG, Jung SC (2010) Assessment of microwave/UV/O3 in the photo-catalytic degradation of Bromothymol Blue in aqueous nano TiO2 particles dispersions. Nanoscale Res Lett 5:1627–1632.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11671-010-9686-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Parolin F, Nascimento UM, Azevedo EB (2013) Microwave-enhanced UV/H2O2 degradation of an azo dye (tartrazine): optimization, colour removal, mineralization and ecotoxicity. Environ Technol 34(10):1247–1253.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2012.744431 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Patil NN, Shukla SR (2015) Degradation of Reactive Yellow 145 dye by persulfate using microwave and conventional heating. J Water Process Eng 7:314–327.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2015.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Pedro JS, Valente S, Padilha PM, Florentino AO (2006) Studies in the adsorption and kinetics of photodegradation of a model compound for heterogeneous photocatalysis onto TiO2. Chemosphere 64(7):1128–1133.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.11.050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Pouran SR, Aziz AA, Daud WM (2015) Review on the main advances in photo-Fenton oxidation system for recalcitrant wastewaters. J Ind Eng Chem 21:53–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2014.05.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Purkait M, DasGupta S, De S (2005) Adsorption of eosin dye on activated carbon and its surfactant based desorption. J Environ Manag 76(2):135–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.01.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Qu D, Qiang Z, Xiao S, Liu Q, Lei Y, Zhou T (2014) Degradation of Reactive Black 5 in a submerged photocatalytic membrane distillation reactor with microwave electrodeless lamps as light source. Sep Purif Technol 122:54–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2013.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rai HS, Bhattacharyya MS, Singh J, Bansal TK, Vats P, Banerjee UC (2005) Removal of dyes from the effluent of textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry: a review of emerging techniques with reference to biological treatment. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 35:219–238.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10643380590917932 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rǎileanu M, Crişan M, Niţoi I et al (2013) TiO2-based nanomaterials with photocatalytic properties for the advanced degradation of xenobiotic compounds from water. A literature survey. Water Air Soil Pollut 224(6):1548-1–1548-45.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-013-1548-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Ramos DD, Bezerra PCS, Quina FH et al (2015) Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 and TiO2/Ag for use in photodegradation of methylviologen, with kinetic study by laser flash photolysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:774–783.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2678-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Ranjan S, Ramalingam C (2016) Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce bacterial membrane rupture by reactive oxygen species generation. Environ Chem Lett 14:487–494.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-016-0586-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Ranjan S, Dasgupta N, Rajendran B, Avadhani GS, Ramalingam C, Kumar A (2016) Microwave-irradiation-assisted hybrid chemical approach for titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesis: microbial and cytotoxicological evaluation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:12287–12302.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6440-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Rayaroth MP, Aravind UK, Aravindakumar CT (2016) Degradation of pharmaceuticals by ultrasound-based advanced oxidation process. Environ Chem Lett 14:259–290.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-016-0568-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Remya N, Lin JG (2011) Current status of microwave application in wastewater treatment—a review. Chem Eng J 166(3):797–813.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2010.11.100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Riaz U, Ashraf SM, Aqib M (2014) Microwave-assisted degradation of acid orange using a conjugated polymer, polyaniline, as catalyst. Arab J Chem 7(1):79–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Riaz U, Ashraf SM, Ruhela A (2015) Catalytic degradation of orange G under microwave irradiation with a novel nanohybrid catalyst. J Environ Chem Eng 3:20–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2014.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Riaz U, Ashraf SM, Budhiraja V, Aleem S, Kashyap J (2016) Comparative studies of the photocatalytic and microwave–assisted degradation of alizarin red using ZnO/poly (1-naphthylamine) nanohybrids. J Mol Liq 216:259–267.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2016.01.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P (2001) Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresour Technol 77(3):247–255.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(00)00080-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Saez C, Panizza M, Rodrigo MA, Cerisola G (2007) Electrochemical incineration of dyes using a boron-doped diamond anode. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 82:575–581.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1703 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Salleh MAM, Mahmoud DK, Karim WAWA, Idris A (2011) Cationic and anionic dye adsorption by agricultural solid wastes: a comprehensive review. Desalination 280(1–3):1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.07.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Samanta SK, Basak T, Sengupta B (2008) Theoretical analysis on microwave heating of oil-water emulsions supported on ceramic, metallic or composite plates. Int J Heat Mass Transf 51:6136–6156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2008.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sanz J, Lombrana JI, De Luis AM, Ortueta M, Varona F (2003) Microwave and Fenton’s reagent oxidation of wastewater. Environ Chem Lett 1(1):45–50.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-002-0007-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Serpone N, Horikoshi S, Emeline AV (2010) Microwaves in advanced oxidation processes for environmental applications. A brief review. J Photochem Photobiol C Photochem Rev 11(2–3):114–131.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochemrev.2010.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Shen D, Fan J, Zhou W, Gao B, Yue Q, Kang Q (2009) Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems. J Hazard Mater 172:99–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Shi BY, Li GH, Wang DS, Feng CH, Tang HX (2007) Removal of direct dyes by coagulation: the performance of preformed polymeric aluminum species. J Hazard Mater 143:567–574.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.09.076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Shi W, Li Q, An S, Zhang T, Zhang L (2016) Magnetic nanosized calcium ferrite particles for efficient degradation of crystal violet using a microwave-induced catalytic method: insight into the degradation pathway. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 91:367–374.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4578 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Shiying Y, Ping W, Xin Y, Guang W, Zhang W, Liang S (2009) A novel advanced oxidation process to degrade organic pollutants in wastewater: microwave-activated persulfate oxidation. J Environ Sci 21:1175–1180.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62399-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Shukla S, Oturan MA (2015) Dye removal using electrochemistry and semiconductor oxide nanotubes. Environ Chem Lett 13:157–172.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-015-0501-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Singh S, Lien S, Chandra V, Devidas A (2016) Comparative study of electrochemical oxidation for dye degradation: parametric optimization and mechanism identification. J Environ Chem Eng 4(3):2911–2921.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.05.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Sirés I, Brillas E, Oturan MA, Rodrigo MA, Panizza M (2014) Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(14):8336–8367.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2783-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Srinivasan A, Liao PH, Lo KV (2016) Microwave treatment of dairy manure for resource recovery: reaction kinetics and energy analysis. J Environ Sci Health B 51(12):840–846.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2016.1208464 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Stefaniuk M, Oleszczuk P, Ok YS (2016) Review on nano zerovalent iron (nZVI): from synthesis to environmental applications. Chem Eng J 287:618–632.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.11.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Stockinger H, Heinzle E, Kut O (1995) Removal of chloro and nitro aromatic wastewater pollutants by ozonation and biotreatment. Environ Sci Technol 29:2016–2022.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00008a021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Tandon PK, Singh SB (2016) Redox processes in water remediation. Environ Chem Lett 14:15–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-015-0540-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Tezcanli-Güyer G, Ince NH (2004) Individual and combined effects of ultrasound, ozone and UV irradiation: a case study with textile dyes. Ultrasonics 42:603–609.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2004.01.096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Trinidad CS, Cruz AM, Cuéllar EL (2015) Photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine by hydrothermally synthesized Bi2MoO6 in presence of EDTA. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:792–799.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3004-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Tripathy BK, Kumar M (2017) Suitability of microwave and microwave-coupled systems for landfill leachate treatment: an overview. J Environ Chem Eng 5:6165–6178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.11.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Tyagi VK, Lo SL (2011) Application of physico-chemical pretreatment methods to enhance the sludge disintegration and subsequent anaerobic digestion: an up to date review. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 10(3):215–242.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-011-9244-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Tyagi VK, Lo SL (2013) Microwave irradiation: a sustainable way for sludge treatment and resource recovery. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 18(71):288–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.10.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Üstün GE, Solmaz SKA, Birgül A (2007) Regeneration of industrial district wastewater using a combination of Fenton process and ion exchange—a case study. Resour Conserv Recycl 52:425–440.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Vakili M, Rafatullah M, Salamatinia B et al (2014) Application of chitosan and its derivatives as adsorbents for dye removal from water and wastewater: a review. Carbohydr Polym 113:115–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Varadarajan G, Venkatachalam P (2016) Sustainable textile dyeing processes. Environ Chem Lett 14:113–122.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-015-0533-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Vasudevan S, Oturan MA (2014) Electrochemistry: as cause and cure in water pollution—an overview. Environ Chem Lett 12:97–108.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-013-0434-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Veksha A, Pandya P, Hill JM (2015) The removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution by biochar and activated carbon under microwave irradiation and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. J Environ Chem Eng 3(3):1452–1458.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2015.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Verma P, Kumar J (2014) Degradation and microbiological validation of meropenem antibiotic in aqueous solution using UV, UV/H2O2, UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2 processes. Int J Eng Res Appl 4:58–65Google Scholar
  201. Verma P, Samanta SK (2017) Degradation kinetics of pollutants present in a simulated wastewater matrix using UV/TiO2 photocatalysis and its microbiological toxicity assessment. Res Chem Intermed 43:6317–6341.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-017-2992-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Verma P, Samanta SK (2018a) Facile synthesis of TiO2-PC composites for enhanced photocatalytic abatement of multiple pollutant dye mixtures: a comprehensive study on the kinetics, mechanism, and effects of environmental factors. Res Chem Intermed 44:1963–1988.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-017-3209-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Verma P, Samanta SK (2018b) A novel UV-C/XOH (X = Na or K) based highly alkaline advanced oxidation process (HA-AOP) for degradation of emerging micropollutants. ChemRxiv.  https://doi.org/10.26434/chemrxiv.5777379.v1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Vilar VJP, Malato S, Dionysiou DD (2015) Advanced oxidation technologies: advances and challenges in Iberoamerican countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:759–761.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3160-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Wang Y, Zhao H, Gao J, Zhao G, Zhang Y, Zhang Y (2012) Rapid mineralization of azo-dye wastewater by microwave synergistic electro-fenton oxidation process. J Phys Chem C 116(13):7457–7463.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp212590f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Wang X, Mei L, Xing X et al (2014) Mechanism and process of methylene blue degradation by manganese oxides under microwave irradiation. Appl Catal B Environ 160–161:211–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wang Y, Xiao Q, Liu J, Yan H, Wei Y (2015) Pilot-scale study of sludge pretreatment by microwave and sludge reduction based on lysis–cryptic growth. Bioresour Technol 190:140–147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.04.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Wong WT, Chan WI, Liao PH, Lo KV (2006) A hydrogen peroxide/microwave advanced oxidation process for sewage sludge treatment. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 41(11):2623–2633.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520600928086 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wu CH, Ng HY (2008) Degradation of CI Reactive Red 2 (RR2) using ozone-based systems: comparisons of decolorization efficiency and power consumption. J Hazard Mater 152:120–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.06.073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Wu CH, Lai CH, Chung WY (2013) Electrical energy per order and photodegradation efficiency of advanced oxidation processes. Appl Mech Mater 291–294:764–767.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.291-294.764 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Xiao J, Fang X, Yang S, He H, Sun C (2015) Microwave-assisted heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of high-concentration Reactive yellow 3 with CuFe2O4/PAC. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 90:1861–1868.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4497 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Xiao R, Luo Z, Wei Z, Luo S, Spinney R, Yang W, Dionysiou DD (2018) Activation of peroxymonosulfate/persulfate by nanomaterials for sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies. Curr Opin Chem Eng 19:51–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coche.2017.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Xu D, Zhang Y, Cheng F, Dai P (2016) Efficient removal of dye from an aqueous phase using activated carbon supported ferrihydrite as heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst under assistance of microwave irradiation. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 60:376–382.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2015.10.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Xu D, Lai X, Guo W, Dai P (2017) Microwave-assisted catalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution by ferrihydrite/maghemite nanoparticles. J Water Process Eng 16:270–276.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2017.02.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Xue XY, Cheng R, Shi L, Ma Z, Zheng X (2017) Nanomaterials for water pollution monitoring and remediation. Environ Chem Lett 15:23–27.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-016-0595-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Yagub MT, Sen TK, Afroze S, Ang HM (2014) Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: a review. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 209:172–184.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2014.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Yavuz Y, Shahbazi R, Koparal AS, Öğütveren ÜB (2014) Treatment of Basic Red 29 dye solution using iron-aluminum electrode pairs by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(14):8603–8609.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2789-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Yin GQ, Liao PH, Lo KV (2008) Sewage sludge treatment using microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 43(2):191–201.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520701781590 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Yin J, Cai J, Yin C, Gao L, Zhou J (2016) Degradation performance of crystal violet over CuO@AC and CeO2–CuO@AC catalysts using microwave catalytic oxidation degradation method. J Environ Chem Eng 4(1):958–964.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. You KF, Fang JH, Qian QL (2013) Treatment of the weak acid brilliant red B dyeing wastewater by microwave enhanced Fenton oxidation. Wool Text J 41:53–56Google Scholar
  221. Yu Y, Chan WI, Liao PH, Lo KV (2010) Disinfection and solubilization of sewage sludge using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process. J Hazard Mater 181:1143–1147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Zhang XW, Wang YZ, Li GT (2005) Effect of operating parameters on microwave assisted photocatalytic degradation of azo dye X-3B with grain TiO2 catalyst. J Mol Catal A Chem 237:199–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2005.03.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Zhang XW, Wang YZ, Li GT, Qu J (2006) Oxidative decomposition of azo dye C.I. acid orange 7 (AO7) under microwave electrodeless lamp irradiation in the presence of H2O2. J Hazard Mater 134:183–189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.10.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Zhang XW, Li GT, Wang YZ (2007a) Microwave assisted photocatalytic degradation of high concentration azo dye reactive brilliant red X-3B with microwave electrodeless lamp as light source. Dyes Pigments 74:536–544.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2006.03.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Zhang Z, Shan Y, Wang J, Ling H, Zang S, Gao W, Zhao A, Zhang H (2007b) Investigation on the rapid degradation of congo red catalyzed by activated carbon powder under microwave irradiation. J Hazard Mater 147:325–333.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.12.083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Zhang L, Su M, Guo X (2008a) Studies on the treatment of brilliant green solution by combination microwave induced oxidation with CoFe2O4. Sep Purif Technol 62:458–463.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2008.02.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Zhang XW, Sun DD, Li GT, Wang YZ (2008b) Investigation of the roles of active oxygen species in photodegradation of azo dye AO7 in TiO2 photocatalysis illuminated by microwave electrodeless lamp. J Photochem Photobiol A 199:311–315.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2008.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Zhang L, Liu X, Guo X, Su M, Xu T, Song X (2011) Investigation on the degradation of brilliant green induced oxidation by NiFe2O4 under microwave irradiation. Chem Eng J 173:737–742.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.08.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Zhang Z, Xu Y, Ma X, Li F, Liu D, Chen Z et al (2012) Microwave degradation of methyl orange dye in aqueous solution in the presence of nano-TiO2-supported activated carbon (supported-TiO2/AC/MW). J Hazard Mater 209–210:271–277.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.01.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Zhang F, Zhou T, Liu Y, Leng J (2015) Microwave synthesis and actuation of shape memory polycaprolactone foams with high speed. Sci Rep 5:11152.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep11152 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Zhang X, Ding Z, Yang J, Cizmas L, Lichtfouse E, Sharma VK (2018) Efficient microwave degradation of humic acids in water using persulfate and activated carbon. Environ Chem Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-018-0721-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Zhao G, Gao J, Shi W, Liu M, Li D (2009) Electrochemical incineration of high concentration azo dye wastewater on the in situ activated platinum electrode with sustained microwave radiation. Chemosphere 77:188–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.07.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Zheng H, Zhang H, Sun X, Zhang P, Tshukudu T, Zhu G (2010) The catalytic oxidation of malachite green by the microwave-Fenton processes. Water Sci Technol 62:1304–1311.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2010.411 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Zhihui A, Peng Y, Xiaohua L (2005) Degradation of 4-chlorophenol by microwave irradiation enhanced advanced oxidation processes. Chemosphere 60:824–827.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Zhong H, Shaogui Y, Yongming J, Cheng S (2009) Microwave photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B using TiO2 supported on activated carbon: mechanism implication. J Environ Sci 21:268–272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62262-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Zhou Y, Liang Z, Wang Y (2008) Decolorization and COD removal of secondary yeast wastewater effluents by coagulation using aluminum sulfate. Desalination 225:301–311.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Zhu YJ, Chen F (2014) Microwave-assisted preparation of inorganic nanostructures in liquid phase. Chem Rev 114:6462–6555.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr400366s CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Zuo R, Du G, Zhang W, Liu L, Liu Y, Mei L, Li Z (2014) Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using TiO2 impregnated diatomite. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2014:170148.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/170148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology PatnaBihta, PatnaIndia

Personalised recommendations