Sulfate radical-induced incorporation of NO2 group into chlorophenols

  • Yuefei JiEmail author
  • Yan Yang
  • Lu Wang
  • Junhe LuEmail author
  • Corinne Ferronato
  • Jean-Marc Chovelon
Original Paper


Sulfate radical (\({\text{SO}}_{4}^{ \cdot - }\))-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) are promising in situ chemical oxidation technologies that received increasing interest recently. The application of SR-AOPs for decontamination may, however, generate unexpected toxic by-products. This contribution reports that \({\text{SO}}_{4}^{ \cdot - }\) can incorporate nitrite (NO2) nitrogen into chlorophenols, resulting in the formation of chloronitrophenols which pose greater environmental concerns. Nitrogen dioxide radical (\({\text{NO}}_{2}^{ \cdot }\)) and phenoxy radical are important precursors responsible for the formation of chloronitrophenols. High concentrations of NO2 inhibited the transformation of chlorophenol but promoted the formation of chloronitrophenol. This study underscores a need for caution in the application of SR-AOPs in the presence of NO2, because chloronitrophenols can be more genotoxic and mutagenic than chlorophenols.


Chloronitrophenols Chlorophenols Nitrating agent Nitrogen dioxide radical Phenoxy radical Sulfate radical 



The authors greatly appreciate the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21607077).

Supplementary material

10311_2018_836_MOESM1_ESM.docx (281 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 281 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Resources and Environmental SciencesNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, IRCELYONVilleurbanneFrance

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