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Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous system by ion-exchange and biosorption methods

  • Arshid Bashir
  • Lateef Ahmad Malik
  • Sozia Ahad
  • Taniya Manzoor
  • Mudasir Ahmad Bhat
  • G. N. Dar
  • Altaf Hussain Pandith
Review
  • 39 Downloads

Abstract

Pollution due to heavy metals is currently a serious problems affecting water bodies. The removal of heavy metals is of great concern due to their toxicity at trace levels and accumulation in the biosystem. Here we review the technical feasibility of biosorption and ion exchange methods for the removal of various heavy metals from the aqueous media. Chemical pretreatment of low-cost biosorbents are presented. Chemically modified biosorbents exhibit far better adsorption capacities than unmodified ones. We also highlighted the effect of pH on the biosorption for maximal uptake of heavy metals, because pH modifies the surface charge of the biosorbent as well as the speciation of heavy metals.

Keywords

Heavy metal remediation Ion exchange Biosorption Layered materials 

List of symbols

Kd

Distribution coefficient (mL g−1)

K1

Rate constant of first-order adsorption

K2

Rate constant for pseudo-second-order model

qe

Amount of solute adsorbed at equilibrium condition

qmax

Saturated monolayer adsorption capacity

KL

Sorption equilibrium constant

KS

Sips constant

CS

Adsorbate solubility at a given temperature

KF

Characteristic constant related to the adsorption capacity

Ce

Equilibrium concentration

C0

Initial metal ion concentrations

n

Characteristic constant related to adsorption intensity or degree of favorability of adsorption

b

Temkin constant in relation to heat of sorption (kJ mol−1)

a

Temkin isotherm constant (L g−1)

KH

Halsey constants

nH

Halsey constants

β

A constant (proportional to the liquid molar volume)

E0

Solid characteristic energy toward a reference compound

θ

Degree of surface coverage

KFH

Equilibrium constant of adsorption

nFH

Number of metal ions occupying sorption sites

γ

Sips parameter

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors, A. H. Pandith and G. N. Dar thank DST, GOI, for financial support vide reference number DST/TM/WTI/2K16/248 (G). A.B, L.A.M and T.M would like to thank Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, for financial assistance in the form of Junior Research Fellowships (JRF).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of KashmirHazratbal, SrinagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryNational Institute of TechnologyHazratbal, SrinagarIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUniversity of KashmirHazratbal, SrinagarIndia

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