Advertisement

Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 501–506 | Cite as

Hair burning and liming in tanneries is a source of pollution by arsenic, lead, zinc, manganese and iron

  • Md. Abul Hashem
  • Md. Shahruk Nur-A-Tomal
  • Nil Ratan Mondal
  • Md. Aminur Rahman
Original Paper

Abstract

Heavy metals in the environment may be toxic for human and animals. Tanneries are a source of pollution by heavy metals. There is little information on heavy metals pollution in tanneries, especially on metals produced by the process of hair burning and liming. Liming is the first stage of chemical treatment where animal hair or wool is removed with sodium sulphide and calcium oxide. Here we studied cow, goat, buffalo and sheep hair, conventional liming agents and liming wastewaters from several sources. Samples were acid-digested and aliquots were analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy following APHA standard method to measure concentrations of arsenic, lead, cadmium, zinc, manganese and iron. Results show that the range of metal contents in hair or wool and liming agents are 1.3–8.2 mg/kg for arsenic, 0.02–21.8 mg/kg for lead, 17.7–121.0 mg/kg for manganese, 7.3–141.1 mg/kg for zinc and 119.6–10613.8 mg/kg for iron. Liming wastewaters contain 1.9–5.6 µg/L arsenic, 0.03–6.05 µg/L lead, 38.6–139.0 µg/L manganese, 144.0–171.5 µg/L zinc and 399.5–1069.0 µg/L iron. Cadmium was below detection limits. This is the first investigation that reveals that hair burning liming operation is a potential source of heavy metals in the environment.

Keywords

Hair Wool Heavy metal Tannery Liming Environment 

References

  1. American Public Health Association (APHA) (2012) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey DC (2013) Milady standard natural hair care and braiding. Cengage Learning, Clifton Park, NYGoogle Scholar
  3. Beernaert J, Schiers J, Leirs H, Blust R, Verhagen R (2007) Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment by means of wood mice hair. Environ Pollut 145:443–451. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.04.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhagure GR, Mirgane SR (2011) Heavy metal concentrations in groundwaters and soils of Thane Region of Maharashtra, India. Environ Monit Assess 173:643–652. doi: 10.1007/s10661-010-1412-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhushan B, Chen N (2006) AFM studies of environmental effects on nanomechanical properties and cellular structure of human hair. Ultramicroscopic 106:755–764. doi: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2005.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bibi S, Kamran MK, Sultana J, Farooqi A (2017) Occurrence and methods to remove arsenic and fluoride contamination in water. Environ Chem Lett 15:125–149. doi: 10.1007/s10311-016-0590-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burger J, Marquez M, Gochfeld M (1994) Heavy metals in the hair of opossum from Palo Verde, Costa Rica. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 27:472–476. doi: 10.1007/BF00214838 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Escobar MO, Hue N, Cutler W (2016) Recent developments on arsenic: contamination and remediation. Recent Res Dev Bioenerg 4:1–32Google Scholar
  9. FAO (2013) Market and policy analyses of raw materials, horticulture and tropical products team, world statistical compendium for raw hides and skins, leather and leather footwear 1993–2012, Trade and Markets Division, pp 25–45Google Scholar
  10. Fazal MA, Kawachi T, Ichion E (2001) Extent and severity of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. Water Int 26:370–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Filistowicz A, Dobrzanski Z, Przysiecki P, Nowicki S, Filistowicz A (2011) Concentration of heavy metals in hair and skin of silver and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Environ Monit Assess 182:477–484. doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-1891-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gowd SS, Reddy MR, Govil PK (2010) Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils at Jajmau (Kanpur) and Unnao industrial areas of the Ganga Plain, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Hazard Mater 174:113–121. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ikehata K, Jin Y, Maleky N, Lin A (2014) Heavy metal pollution in water resources in China–occurrences and public health implications. In: Sharma SK (ed) Heavy metals in water: presence, removal and safety. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 141–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. INSPIRED Program for Bangladesh (2013) Technical report: leather sector includes a value chain analysis and proposed action plans. Bangladesh INSPIRED, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  15. Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN (2014) Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol 7:60–72. doi: 10.2478/intox-2014-0009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Järup L (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull 68(167–182):2003. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldg032 Google Scholar
  17. Jian S, Wenyi T, Wuyong C (2011) Kinetics of enzymatic unhairing by protease in leather industry. J Clean Prod 19:325–331. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.10.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Wani PA, Oves M (2009) Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in the remediation of metal contaminated soils. Environ Chem Lett 7:1–19. doi: 10.1007/s10311-008-0155-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Krishna AK, Govil PK (2007) Soil contamination due to heavy metals from an industrial area of Surat, Gujarat, Western India. Environ Monit Assess 124:263–275. doi: 10.1007/s10661-006-9224-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Krysiak A, Karczewska A (2007) Arsenic extractability in soils in the areas of former arsenic mining and smelting, SW Poland. Sci Total Environ 379:190–200. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.09.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kumaresan M, Riyazuddin P (2001) Overview of speciation chemistry of arsenic. Curr Sci 80(7):837–846Google Scholar
  22. Li J, Cen D, Huang D, Li X, Xu J, Fu S, Cai R, Wu X, Tang M, Sun Y, Zhang J, Zheng J (2014) Detection and analysis of 12 heavy metals in blood and hair sample from a general population of Pearl River Delta area. Cell Biochem Biophys 70(3):1663–1669. doi: 10.1007/s12013-014-0110-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McLean CM, Koller CE, Rodger JC, MacFarlane GR (2009) Mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in Australian terrestrial environments. Sci Total Environ 407:3588–3596. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.01.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) (1997) The Environment Conservation Rules. Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  25. National Research Council (2001) Arsenic in drinking water. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  26. Patra RC, Swarup D, Naresh R, Kumar P, Sekhar P, Ranjan R (2005) Cadmium level in blood and milk from animals reared around different polluting sources in India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 74:1092–1097. doi: 10.1007/s00128-005-0693-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Patra RC, Swarup D, Naresh R, Kumar P, Nandi D, Shekhar P, Roy S, Ali SL (2007) Tail hair as an indicator of environmental exposure of cows to lead and cadmium in different industrial areas. Ecotox Environ Safe 66:127–131. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2006.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Phillips C, Gyori Z, Kovacs B (2003) The effect of adding cadmium and lead alone or in combination to the diet of pigs on their growth, carcase composition and reproduction. J Sci Food Agric 83:1357–1365. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.1548 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Robbins CR (1994) Chemical and physical behavior of human hair, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, p 1994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sardans J, Montes F, Peñuelas J (2011) Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry to Determine As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb in Soils and Sediments: A Review and Perspectives. Soil Sediment Contam 20(4):447–491. doi: 10.1080/15320383.2011.571526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Singh R, Gautam N, Mishra A, Gupta R (2011) Heavy metals and living systems: an overview. Indian J Pharmacol 43:246–253. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.81505 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Swarup D, Patra RC, Naresh R, Kumar P, Shekhar P (2005) Blood lead levels in lactating cows reared around polluted localities; transfer of lead into milk. Sci Total Environ 347:06–110. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.12.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Syed AN (2015) The chemical composition of hair. http://www.dralinsyed.com/blog/2015/7/31/the-chemical-composition-of-hair
  34. UNIDO (2012) Cleaner leather technologies suitable for tanneries in developing countries (Hair-save Liming Process), Eighteenth Session of the leather and leather products industry panel, Shanghai, China, 1–5 Sept 2012Google Scholar
  35. Yadav RS, Chandravanshi LP, Shukla RK, Sankhwar ML, Ansari RW, Shukla PK, Pant AB, Khanna VK (2011) Neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats. NeuroToxicology 32:760–768. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2011.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md. Abul Hashem
    • 1
  • Md. Shahruk Nur-A-Tomal
    • 1
  • Nil Ratan Mondal
    • 1
  • Md. Aminur Rahman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Leather EngineeringKhulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET)KhulnaBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Public Health EngineeringZonal LaboratoryKhulnaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations