Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 125–149 | Cite as

Occurrence and methods to remove arsenic and fluoride contamination in water

  • Sadia Bibi
  • Muhammad Aqeel Kamran
  • Jawairia Sultana
  • Abida Farooqi


Groundwater contamination with arsenic and fluoride has affected over 300 million people worldwide. Ingestion of arsenic and fluoride for extended period of time or at high concentration causes severe health effects. Arsenic can cause thickening and discoloration of the skin, cardiovascular disorders, cancer and skin lesions. Excessive intake of fluoride leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis and bone deformities. This report reviews the distribution of arsenic and fluoride contamination, their sources, mobilization and associated health risks. Remediation technologies to remove arsenic and fluoride are presented.


Arsenic Fluoride Contamination Health hazard Treatment technologies 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sadia Bibi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Muhammad Aqeel Kamran
    • 3
  • Jawairia Sultana
    • 4
  • Abida Farooqi
    • 5
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Tibetan environmental Changes and Land surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Ecoinformatics and Watershed Ecology LaboratoryUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  5. 5.Environmental hydro geochemistry laboratory, Department of Environmental SciencesQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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