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Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 153–175 | Cite as

Review of fly ash inertisation treatments and recycling

  • Annalisa Zacco
  • Laura Borgese
  • Alessandra Gianoncelli
  • Rudolf P. W. J. Struis
  • Laura E. Depero
  • Elza Bontempi
Review

Abstract

Fly ash (FA) is a by-product of power, and incineration plants operated either on coal and biomass, or on municipal solid waste. FA can be divided into coal fly ash, obtained from power plant burning coal, flue gas desulphurisation FA, that is, the by-product generated by the air pollution control equipment in coal-fired power plants to reduce the release of SO2, biomass FA produced in the plants for thermal conversion of biomass and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) FA, that is, the finest residue obtained from the scrubber system in a MSWI plant. Because of the large amount produced in the world, fly ash is now considered the world’s fifth largest material resource. The composition of FA is very variable, depending on its origins; then, also pollutants can be very different. In this frame, it is fundamental to exploit the chemical or physical potentials of FA constituents, thus rendering them second-life functionality. This review paper is addressed to FA typology, composition, treatment, recycling, functional reuse and metal and organic pollutants abatement. Because of the general growing of environmental awareness and increasing energy and material demand, it is expected that increasing recycling rates will reduce the pressure on demand for primary raw materials, help to reuse valuable materials which would otherwise be wasted and reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from extraction and processing.

Keywords

Fly ash Heavy metals Organic pollutants Recycling 

List of abbreviations

AES

Acid extraction sulphide stabilisation process

APC

Air pollution control

COSMOS

Colloidal silica medium to obtain safe inert

DC

Direct current

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetate

FA

Fly ash

FGD

Flue gas desulphurisation

LCA

Life cycle assessments

LOI

Loss of ignition

MSWI

Municipal solid waste incineration

PAH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PCB

Polychlorinated bifenyl

PCDD

Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

PCDF

Polychlorodibenzo-p-furan

POP

Persistent hazardous organic pollutants

RHA

Rice husk ash

S/S

Solidification/stabilisation

TEQ

Toxic equivalent

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors from the Brescia University (Italy) acknowledge LIFE+ financial instrument of the European Community (LIFE+ 2011 project ENV/IT/ 256) and RPWJ Struis thanks Prof. Chr. Ludwig (EPFL, Switzerland) for valuable discussions.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annalisa Zacco
    • 1
  • Laura Borgese
    • 1
  • Alessandra Gianoncelli
    • 1
  • Rudolf P. W. J. Struis
    • 2
    • 3
  • Laura E. Depero
    • 1
  • Elza Bontempi
    • 1
  1. 1.INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies LaboratoryBrescia UniversityBresciaItaly
  2. 2.General Energy Research (ENE), Laboratory for Bioenergy and Catalysis (LBK)Paul Scherrer InstituteVilligenSwitzerland
  3. 3.École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL-ENAC-IIE)LausanneSwitzerland

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