Advertisement

Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 301–307 | Cite as

First continuous shipboard δ18O and δD measurements in sea water by diffusion sampling—cavity ring-down spectrometry

  • N. C. MunksgaardEmail author
  • C. M. Wurster
  • A. Bass
  • I. Zagorskis
  • M. I. Bird
Original Paper

Abstract

Combined measurements of salinity and the oxygen/hydrogen stable isotope composition of marine waters can characterise processes such as freshwater mixing, evaporation, precipitation and sea-ice formation. However, stable isotope data with high spatial and temporal resolution are necessary for a detailed understanding of mixed water bodies with multiple inputs. So far analysis of δ18O and δD values in water has been a relatively expensive, laboratory-based technique requiring collection of discrete samples. This has greatly limited the scope and scale of field research that can be undertaken using stable isotope analysis. Here, we report the first continuous shipboard measurements of δ18O and δD values in water by diffusion sampling-cavity ring-down spectrometry. Combined with continuous salinity recordings, a data set of nearly 6,000 measurements was made at 30-s intervals during a 3-day voyage through the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our results show that continuous shipboard measurement of δ18O/δD values provides additional discriminatory power for assessing water mass formation processes and histories. Precise identification of river plumes within the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon was only possible because unique δ18O/δD–salinity relationships of individual plumes were measured at high spatial and temporal resolution. The main advantage of this new technique is the ability to collect continuous, real-time isotope data at a small fraction of the cost of traditional isotope analysi s of discrete samples. Water δ18O and δD values measured by diffusion sampling-cavity ring-down spectrometry and laboratory-based isotope ratio mass spectrometry have similar accuracy and precision.

Keywords

Marine River Plume Shipboard Stable Isotopes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The crew and scientists aboard the RV Ferguson are thanked for their assistance and willingness to navigate shallow waters. Salinity data were sourced from the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), an initiative of the Australian Government being conducted as part of the National Research Infrastructure Strategy. The Environmental Analytical Chemistry Unit of Charles Darwin University provided ICPMS analysis.

References

  1. Abe O, Agata S, Morimoto M et al (2009) A 6.5-year continuous record of sea surface salinity and seawater isotopic composition at Harbour of Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan. Isot Environ Healt S 45:247–258. doi: 10.1080/10256010903083847 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin WEN, Cage AG, Scourse JD (2006) Mid-latitude shelf seas: a NW European perspective on the seasonal dynamics of temperature, salinity and oxygen isotopes. The Holocene 16:937–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bainbridge ZT, Brodie JE, Faithful JW et al (2009) Identifying the land-based sources of suspended sediments, nutrients and pesticides discharged to the Great Barrier Reef from the Tully–Murray Basin, Queensland, Australia. Mar Freshwater Res 60:1081–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bass AM, Bird MI, Liddell MJ, Nelson PN (2011) Fluvial dynamics of dissolved and particulate organic carbon during periodic discharge events in a steep tropical rainforest catchment. Limnol Oceanogr 56:2282–2292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benway H, Mix AC (2004) Oxygen isotopes, upper-ocean salinity, and precipitation sources in the eastern tropical Pacific. Earth Planet Sc Lett 224:493–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brodie J, Schroeder T, Rohde K et al (2010) Dispersal of suspended sediments and nutrients in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon during river-discharge events: conclusions from satellite remote sensing and concurrent flood-plume sampling. Mar Freshwater Res 61:651–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown J, Simmonds I, Noone D (2006) Modelling δ18O in tropical precipitation and the surface ocean for present-day climate. J Geophys Res 111:D05105. doi: 10.1029/2004JD005611 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burrage DM, Heron ML, Hacker JM et al (2002) Evolution and dynamics of tropical river plumes in the Great Barrier Reef: an integrated remote sensing and in situ study. J Geophys Res 107:8016. doi: 10.1029/2001JC001024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chester R (2003) Marine geochemistry. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooper LW, Benner R, McClelland JW (2005) Linkages among runoff, dissolved organic carbon, and the stable oxygen isotope composition of seawater and other water mass indicators in the Arctic Ocean. J Geophys Res 110:G02013. doi: 10.1029/2005JG000031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crosson ER (2008) A cavity ring-down analyzer for measuring atmospheric levels of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapour. Appl Phys B 92:403–408. doi: 10.1007/s00340-008-3135-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Delaygue G, Jouzel J, Dutay J-C (2000) Oxygen 18–salinity relationship simulated by an oceanic general circulation model. Earth Planet Sc Lett 178:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DERM (2012) Department of environment and resource management water monitoring data portal. http://watermonitoring.derm.qld.gov.au/host.htm. Accessed 29 May 2012
  14. Devlin M, Waterhouse J, Taylor J, Brodie J (2001) Flood plumes in the Great Barrier Reef: spatial and temporal patterns in composition and distribution. Research publication no. 68. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  15. Gupta P, Noone D, Galewsky J, Sweeney C, Vaughn BH (2009) Demonstration of high-precision continuous measurements of water vapor isotopologues in laboratory and remote field deployments using wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) technology. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:2534–2542. doi: 10.1002/rcm.4100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harwood AJP, Deenis PF, Marca AD et al (2008) The oxygen isotope composition of water masses within the North Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf S 78:353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoefs J (2004) Stable isotope geochemistry. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  18. Ingram BL, Conrad ME, Ingle JC (1996) Stable isotope and salinity systematics in estuarine waters and carbonates: San Francisco Bay. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 60:455–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu J, Fu G, Song X et al (2010) Stable isotopic compositions in Australian precipitation. J Geophys Res 115:D23307. doi: 10.1029/2010JD014403 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McConnell MC, Thunell RC, Lorenzoni L et al. (2009) Seasonal variability in the salinity and oxygen isotopic composition of seawater from the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela: Implications for paleosalinity reconstructions. Geochem Geophy Geosy 10. doi: 10.1029/2008GC002035
  21. Morimoto M, Abe O, Kayanne H et al (2002) Salinity records for the 1997–98 El Nino from Western Pacific corals. Geophys Res Lett 29:1540. doi: 10.1029/2001GL013521 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Munksgaard NC, Wurster CM, Bird MI (2011) Continuous analysis of δ18O and δD values of water by diffusion sampling cavity ring-down spectrometry: a novel sampling device for unattended field monitoring of precipitation, ground and surface waters. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 25:3706–3712. doi: 10.1002/rcm.5282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Munksgaard NC, Wurster CM, Bass AM, Bird MI (2012) Extreme short-term stable isotope variability revealed by continuous rainwater analysis. Hydrol Proc (submitted)Google Scholar
  24. Railsback B (1990) Influence of changing deep ocean circulation on the Phanerozoic oxygen isotopic record. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 54:1501–1509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Railsback LB, Anderson TF (1989) Paleooceanographic modelling of temperature-salinity profiles from stable isotopic data. Paleooceanography 4:585–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schmidt GA, LeGrande AN, Hoffmann G (2007) Water isotope expressions of intrinsic and forced variability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J Geophys Res 112:D10103. doi: 10.1029/2006JD007781 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schmidt GA, Bigg GR, Rohling EJ (2012) Global seawater oxygen-18 database—v1. 21. http://data.giss.nasa.gov/o18data/. Accessed 29 May 2012
  28. Singh A, Jani RA, Ramesh R (2010) Spatiotemporal variations of the δ18O–salinity relation in the northern Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res I 57:1422–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stott et al. (2004) Decline of surface temperature and salinity in the western tropical Pacific Ocean in the Holocene epochGoogle Scholar
  30. Wolanski E, Fabricius KE, Cooper TF, Humphrey C (2008) Wet season fine sediment dynamics on the inner shelf of the Great Barrier Reef. Estuar Coast Shelf S 77:755–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yamamoto-Kawai M, Carmack EC, McLaughlin FA, Falkner KK (2010) Oxygen isotope ratio, barium and salinity in waters around the North American coast from the Pacific to the Atlantic: implications for freshwater sources to the Arctic through flow. J Mar Res 68:97–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. C. Munksgaard
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • C. M. Wurster
    • 2
  • A. Bass
    • 2
  • I. Zagorskis
    • 3
  • M. I. Bird
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Institute for the Environment and LivelihoodsCharles Darwin UniversityDarwinAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, School of Earth and Environmental SciencesJames Cook UniversityCairnsAustralia
  3. 3.Australian Institute of Marine ScienceTownsvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations