Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 47–53 | Cite as

Gold recovery from chloride solutions using fallen leaves

  • Serdar Aktas
  • Baris Gozuak
  • Hanzade Acma
  • Mehmet Reha Ozalp
  • Ercan Acma
Original Paper

Abstract

Recovery of gold from various waste materials is mostly achieved through hydrometallurgical methods, which generate a large amount of secondary chemical waste. Therefore, there is a need to develop an environmentally friendly process for gold recovery. This paper summarizes research on the recovery of gold ions from chloride solutions using fallen tree leaves. First, leaves from trees of 16 different species were studied and ranked by the percent of gold that was recovered. Then, several factors—pH, contact time, shaking rate, and the quantity of ground leaf—affecting the recovery process were studied on leaves from four selected species. Two kinds of leaves were found to exhibit the efficacy of the most effective sorbents, such as activated carbon. After recovery, the gold-deposited leaves were heat-treated at 1,200°C to isolate the gold from the leaves. This method of gold recovery proved to be fast, cheap, and environmentally friendly.

Keywords

Gold recovery Metal removal Fallen leaves Biological sorbents 

References

  1. Al-Asheh S, Duvnjak Z (1997) Sorption of cadmium and other heavy metals by pine bark. J Hazard Mater 56:35–51Google Scholar
  2. Arunima S, Krishna GB (2005) Adsorption of chromium (VI) on Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf powder. Adsorption 10:327–338Google Scholar
  3. Chen JC, Wey MY, Ou WY (1999) Capture of heavy metals by sorbents in incineration flue gas. Sci Tot Environ 228:67–77Google Scholar
  4. Ferro-Garcia MA, Utrilla JR, Gordillo JR, Tolledo IB (1988) Adsorption of zinc, cadmium, and copper on activated carbons obtained from agricultural by-products. Carbon 26:363–373Google Scholar
  5. Hu L, Adeyiga AA, Greer T et al (2002) Removal of metal ions from wastewater with roadside tree leaves. Chem Eng Comm 189:1587–1597Google Scholar
  6. Kesraouiouki S, Cheeseman CR, Perry R (1994) Natural zeolite utilization in pollution-control - a review of applications to metals effluents. J Chem Tech Biotech 59:121–126Google Scholar
  7. Kocjan R (1992) Silica-gel modified with titan yellow as a sorbent for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of heavy-metals from alkaline-earth or alkali-metal salts. Analyst 117:741–744Google Scholar
  8. Lee SH, Chong HJ, Hongsuk C et al (1998) Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by apple residues. Proc Biochem 33:205–211Google Scholar
  9. Navratil JD (1994) Trace metal recovery and concentration using ferrites. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 183:135–138Google Scholar
  10. Ogata T, Kim YH, Nakano Y (2007) Selective recovery process for gold utilizing a functional gel derived from natural condensed tannin. J Chem Eng Jpn 40:270–274Google Scholar
  11. Salim R (1988) Removal of nickel (II) from polluted water using decaying leaves. J Environ Sci Health-A 23:183–197 and 321–334Google Scholar
  12. Salim R, Abu El-Halawa R (2002) Efficiency of dry plant leaves (mulch) for removal of lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. Proc Saf Env Prot 80:270–274Google Scholar
  13. Salim R, Robinson JW (1985) Removal of dissolved aluminum released by acid rain using decaying leaves. J Environ Sci Health-A 20:701–734Google Scholar
  14. Saxena A, Saxena DK, Srivastava HS (2003) The influence of glutathione on physiological effects of lead and its accumulation in moss Sphagnum squarrosum. Water Soil Air Poll 143:351–361Google Scholar
  15. Shukla SR, Sakhardande VD (1992) Column studies on metal-ion removal by dyed cellulosic materials. J Appl Poly Sci 44:903–910Google Scholar
  16. Torresdey JG, Hejazi M, Tiemann K et al (2002) Use of hop (Humulus lupulus) agricultural by-products for the reduction of aqueous lead(II) environmental health hazards. J Hazard Mater 91:95–112Google Scholar
  17. Wilhelm M, Ohnesorge FK, Lombeck I, Hafner D (1989) Uptake of aluminum, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc by human scalp hair and elution of the adsorbed metals. J Anal Toxicol 13:17–21Google Scholar
  18. Yadava KP, Panday KK, Tyaji BS, Singh VN (1987) Fly-ash for the treatment of Cd(Ii) rich effluents. J Environ Tech Lett 8:225–234Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serdar Aktas
    • 1
  • Baris Gozuak
    • 1
  • Hanzade Acma
    • 2
  • Mehmet Reha Ozalp
    • 3
  • Ercan Acma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak, IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak, IstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations