Photodegradation of fenamiphos on the surface of clays and soils
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The photodegradation of the organophosphorus fenamiphos was studied in various clay matrices: montmorillonite, kaolin and the mineral components of two soils collected from two different sites: Settat (S) and Berrechid (B). The degradation was shown to be mainly due to the direct excitation of fenamiphos and was similar for all the matrices with a two-step kinetics : a fast and a slower one. The first step rate obtained at the surface of montmorillonite was slightly lower than that determined at the surface of kaolin. The fenamiphos degradation process clearly depended on the amount of humic substances and iron(III). The latter component accelerated the disappearance of fenamiphos, while humic substances clearly inhibited the process. The degradation rate increased in the presence of water and was mainly due to the involvement of the photohydrolysis process leading to the scission of the P–O bond. The formation of the main by-products, sulfoxide, sulfone and phenol derivatives, were elucidated by HPLC/MS.