Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 105–108 | Cite as

Principal component analysis of trace elements in industrial soils

  • Latinka Slavković
  • Biljana Škrbić
  • Nada Miljević
  • Antonije OnjiaEmail author
Original Paper


The concentrations of the elements Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu and As in soil samples from industrial areas in Serbia were studied. The complexity of the data of eight elements in fifty-nine soil samples was reduced by principal component analysis. Three significant factors, in which 78% of the total variance in the data was found, were attributed to possible pollution sources. The crude and fuel oil burning, local smelters and exhaust emissions were shown to impact heavily the soil trace element profile, whereas no distinct soil type factor was observed. This approach, evidencing spatial relationship, enabled a differentiation between the soil samples originating from different areas.


PCA AAS Heavy metals Soil Pollution 



This research was supported in part by the Serbian Ministry of Science, Technology and Development (Contracts No. 1775 and 1978).


  1. Grubbs F (1969) Procedures for detecting outlying observations in samples. Technometrics 11:1–21Google Scholar
  2. Imperato M, Adamo P, Naimo D, Arienzo M, Stanzione D (2003) Spatial distribution of heavy metals in urban soils of Naples city. Environ Pollut 124:247–256CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Kaiser HF (1960) The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Edu Psychol Meas 20:141–151Google Scholar
  4. Massart DL (1997) (ed) Handbook of chemometrics and qualimetrics. Elsevier, Amsterdam, NLGoogle Scholar
  5. Pendias H, Kabata-Pendias A (1984) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USAGoogle Scholar
  6. Pierzynski G, Sims J, Vance G (1994) Soils and environmental quality. Lewis, Boca Raton, FL, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. Shapiro SS, Wilk MB (1965) An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52:591–611Google Scholar
  8. Škrbić B, Novaković J, Miljević N (2002) Mobility of heavy metals originating from bombing of industrial sites. J Environ Sci Health A37:7–16Google Scholar
  9. Sterckeman T, Douay F, Proix N, Fourier H (2000) Vertical distribution of Cd, Pb, and Zn in soils near smelters in the north of France. Environ Pollut 107:377–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Vandercasteele C, Block C (1993) Modern methods for trace element determination. Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Latinka Slavković
    • 1
  • Biljana Škrbić
    • 2
  • Nada Miljević
    • 1
  • Antonije Onjia
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.The Vinča Institute of Nuclear ScienceBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Faculty of TechnologyUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia

Personalised recommendations