Remote sensing analysis of forest damage by selection logging in the Kabaung Reserved Forest, Bago Mountains, Myanmar
Selection logging is a principal management scheme in natural teak-bearing forests in Myanmar. Monitoring the spatial extent and intensity of selection logging is important for sustainable forest management. This study applied the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image differencing method using two SPOT-5 pan-sharpened images (2.5 m spatial resolution) taken in October 2007 and January 2009 to analyze canopy changes associated with damage from forest harvesting. According to the pixel-based analysis, NDVI changes were larger in most logging road/log landing points whereas smaller NDVI changes were seen in most unlogged points. NDVI changes in teak stump areas were related to distance from a logging road and the number of stumps within the estimated crown area (a circular area with a 10 m radius from the center of each stump). A Fisher’s exact test showed that one of the main factors causing the high NDVI change in teak stump areas was the effect of road construction. The distribution pattern of teak stumps indicated that teak stumps with estimated crown areas that contained more than one stump had high mean change in NDVI. The spectral difference between before and after logging revealed that logging roads had a greater effect on canopy changes than teak stumps.
KeywordsCanopy change Image differencing method Myanmar selection system NDVI Teak
This study was financially supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the JSPS (21255003, and 20710189) and the JSPS Global COE Program (E-04). We would like to express our thanks to the Forest Department, Myanmar Timber Enterprise, Myanmar and villagers of Kayinmathe village for their support and collaboration during the field work.
- Arroyo-Mora JP, Kalacska M, Chazdon R (2009) Spectral unmixing of forest canopy recovery in selectively logged units in a tropical lowland forest, Costa Rica. Anais XIV Simpósio Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto, Natal, Brasil, 25–30 abril 2009, INPE. pp 2539–2546Google Scholar
- Aung Thant Zin (2000) Potentialities and constraints of teak bearing forest for sustainable forest management under current management system in Oattwin Township forest, Bago Yoma Region, Myanmar. M Sc thesis, Dresden Technical University, Tharandt, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- Bhandari SP (2003) Detecting and characterizing selective logging in tropical forest. A case study in Labanan concession, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. ITC, EnschedeGoogle Scholar
- Ko Ko Gyi, Kyaw Tint (1995) Status of management of natural teak forests. Paper presented to the second regional seminar on teak. 23 May–3 June 1995, Yangon, MyanmarGoogle Scholar
- Panigrahy RK, Kale MP, Dutta U, Mishra A, Banerjee B, Singh S (2010) Forest cover change detection of Western Ghats of Maharashtra using satellite remote sensing based visual interpretation technique. Curr Sci 98:657–664Google Scholar
- Sader SA, Bertrand M, Wilson EH (2003) Satellite change detection of forest harvest patterns on an Industrial forest landscape. For Sci 49:341–353Google Scholar
- Thein Hla Maung, Kanzaki M, Fukushima M, Minn Yazar (2007) Structure and composition of a teak-bearing forest under the Myanmar Selection System: impacts of logging and bamboo flowering. Southeast Asian Stud 45:303–316Google Scholar
- Vieira G (1995) Dynamics of the remaining plant population in gaps after logging in the Amazon. In: Malik ARA, Nik AR, Mohamad A, See LS, Hoy AWH, Choon KK (eds) Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research: proceeding of the third conference. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Malaysia, pp 54–67Google Scholar
- Wang C, Qi J, Cochrane M (2005) Assessment of tropical forest degradation with canopy fractional cover from Landsat ETM+ and IKONOS imagery. Earth Interactions 9:paper no. 22Google Scholar
- Yu Kay Thwe (2007) Preliminary assessment of existing timber harvesting practices with reduced impact logging (RIL) at an operational level in West Swa Reserved Forest, Bago Yoma. Master thesis, University of Forestry, MyanmarGoogle Scholar
- Zaw Khin (2004) Harvesting, processing and trade of teak in Myanmar. A paper presented at the national forum on sustainable teak and bamboo development in Myanmar. 30 March 2004. Forest Department, YangonGoogle Scholar