Advertisement

Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 377–382 | Cite as

Contributions of salmon-derived nitrogen to riparian vegetation in the northwest Pacific region

  • Akiko NagasakaEmail author
  • Yu Nagasaka
  • Kinuko Ito
  • Tsutomu Mano
  • Masami Yamanaka
  • Atushi Katayama
  • Yoshikazu Sato
  • Andrey L. Grankin
  • Andrey I. Zdorikov
  • Gennady A. Boronov
SHORT COMMUNICATION

Abstract

We examined the relationship between the annual escapement of salmon and the δ 15N of willow (Salix spp.) leaves to evaluate the contribution of marine-derived nutrients (MDN) to riparian vegetation around the Pacific Northwest and Northeast regions. Foliar δ 15N values ranged from −3.42‰ to 4.65‰. The value increased with increasing density of carcasses up to 500 fish/km and 1500 fish/km. δ 15N values were variable at carcass densities below 500 fish/km. Possible factors affecting the fluctuation of δ 15N at reference sites are: (1) denitrification; (2) the presence of N2-fixing trees, such as alder; and (3) agricultural runoff. δ 15N values at the sites with carcass densities over 500 fish/km were consistently high, while a value of δ 15N below zero was observed at only one site (Rusha River; δ 15N = −1.87‰). At this site, most adult pink salmon returned to limited locations near the estuary because steeper channel gradients acted as a migration barrier, resulting in the negative δ 15N value. Nevertheless, we concluded that our results showed evidence of the feedback of MDN to terrestrial vegetation, although the use of the δ 15N value as a terrestrial end member at spawning sites is limited. If the relationship between the enrichment index, which is expressed as the values using a mixing model, and salmon abundance was estimated, the availability of MDN in riparian ecosystems could possibly be evaluated and will lead to the establishment of escapement goals.

Key words

Marine-derived nutrients Northwest Pacific region Salix Salmon carcasses Stable nitrogen isotopes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ben-David, M, Hanley, TA, Schell, DM 1998Fertilization of terrestrial vegetation by spawning Pacific salmon: the role of flooding and predator activityOikos834755Google Scholar
  2. Bilby, RE, Fransen, BR, Bisoon, PA 1996Incorporation of nitrogen and carbon from spawning coho salmon into the trophic system of small streams: evidence from stable isotopesCan J Fish Aquat Sci536473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bilby, RE, Fransen, BR, Bisson, RA, Walter, JK 1998Response of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus myskiss) to the addition of salmon carcasses to two streams in southwestern Washington, USACan J Fish Aquat Sci5519091918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bilby, RE, Fransen, BR, Walter, JK, Cederholm, CJ, Scarlett, WJ 2001Preliminary evaluation of the use of nitrogen stable isotope ratios to establish escapement levels for Pacific salmonFisheries26614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bilby, RE, Beach, EW, Fransen, BR, Walter, JK 2003Transfer of nutrients from spawning salmon to riparian vegetation in western WashingtonTrans Am Fish Soc132733745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cederholm, CJ, Houston, DB, Cole, DL, Scarlett, WJ 1989Fate of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) carcasses in spawning streamsCan J Fish Aquat Sci4613471355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Garret, JW, Bennett, DH, Frost, FO, Thurow, RF 1998Enhanced incubation success for kokanee spawning in groundwater upwelling sites in a small Idaho streamN Am J Fish Manag18925930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gende, SM, Edwards, RT, Willson, MF, Wipfli, MS 2002Pacific salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystemsBioscience52917928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Helfield, J, Naiman, RJ 2001Effects of salmon-derived nitrogen on riparian forest growth and implications for stream productivityEcology8224032409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Helfield, J, Naiman, RJ 2002Salmon and alder as nitrogen sources to riparian forests in a boreal Alaskan watershedOecologia133573582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hilderbrand, GV, Schwartz, CC, Robbins, CT, Jacoby, ME, Hanley, TA, Arthur, SM, Servheen, C 1999The importance on meat, particularly salmon, to body size, population productivity, and conservation of North American brown bearsCan J Zool74132138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hocking, MD, Reimchen, TE 2002Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests in the Pacific NorthwestBMC Ecol24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hokkaido Fish Hatchery (1936–1945) Annual report of salmon and trout hatchery of Hokkaido (in Japanese). Hokkaido Fish HatcheryGoogle Scholar
  14. Ito, T 2003Indirect effect of salmon carcasses on growth of a freshwater amphipod, Jesogammarus jesoensis (Gammaridea): an experimental studyEcol Res188189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jauquet, J, Pittman, N, Heinis, JA, Thompson, S, Tatyama, M, Cederholm, J 2003Observations of chum salmon consumption by wildlife and changes in water chemistry at Kennedy Creek during 1997–2000Stockner, JG eds. Nutrients in salmonid ecosystems: sustaining production and biodiversityAmerican Fisheries SocietyBethesda7188Google Scholar
  16. Johnston NT, Macdonald JS, Hall KJ, Tschaplinski PJ (1997) A preliminary study of the role of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) carcasses as carbon and nitrogen sources for benthic insects and fishes in the “Early Stuart” stock spawning streams, 1050 km from the ocean. British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Land and Parks Fisheries Project Report No. RD55, 24Google Scholar
  17. Johnston, NT, MacIsaac, EA, Tschaplinski, PJ, Hall, KJ 2004Effects of the abundance of spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) on nutrients and algal biomass in forested streamsCan J Fish Aquat Sci61384403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Keough, JR, Sierszen, ME, Hagley, CA 1996Analysis of Lake Superior coastal food web with stable isotope techniquesLimnol Oceanogr41136146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kline, TC,Jr, Goering, JJ, Mathsen, OA, Poe, PH, Parker, PL 1990Recycling of elements transported upstream by runs of Pacific salmon: I. δ 15N and δ 13C evidence in Sashin Creek, southeastern AlaskaCan J Fish Aquat Sci47136144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klinka, DR, Reimchen, TE 2002Nocturnal and diurnal foraging behavior of brown bears (Ursus arctos) on a salmon stream in coastal British ColumbiaCan J Zool8013171322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Koba, K, Tokuchi, N, Iwatsubo, G, Wada, E 1994The use of the nitrogen isotope method in the study of denitrification in a forested ecosystem (in Japanese with English summary)Bull Exp For Kyoto Univ663747Google Scholar
  22. Kobayashi, T 1968Some observations on the natural spawning ground of chum and pink salmon in HokkaidoSci Res Hokkaido Salmon Hatch22713Google Scholar
  23. Komada, M, Kimiwada, K, Hayakawa, Y, Hojito, M, Asakawa, Y 1998An assessment of nitrogen origin based on natural 15N abundance of plants growing in Kushiro Shitsugen National Park (in Japanese)Jpn J Soil Sci Plant Nutr69185189Google Scholar
  24. Kondo, Y, Tase, N, Hirata, T 1997Nitrogen isotope ratio of nitrate of groundwater in Miyako Island, Okinawa Prefecture (in Japanese with English summary)J Jpn Assoc Groundwater Hydrol39115Google Scholar
  25. Konohira, E, Yoh, M, Yagi, K, Kubota, J 1997Variation in the natural abundance of 15N in NO3 -N in streamwater during a rainfall event (in Japanese with English summary)J Jpn Soc Hydrol Water Resourc10360366Google Scholar
  26. Koyama, A, Kavanagh, K, Robinson, A 2005Marine nitrogen in central Idaho riparian forests: evidence from stable isotopesCan J Fish Aquat Sci62518526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mariotti, A, Landreau, A, Simon, B 198815N isotope biogeochemistry and natural denitrification process in groundwater: application to the chalk aquifer of northern FranceGeochim Cosmochim Acta5218691878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mathewson, DD, Hocking, MD, Reimchen, TE 2003Nitrogen uptake in riparian plant communities across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon densityBMC Ecol34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mayama, H 1993Life history and ecological characteristics of trout salmonTamai, MMizuno, NNakamura, T eds. Environmental river engineeringTokyo University PressTokyo111121Google Scholar
  30. Murota, T 2003The marine nutrient shadow: a global comparison of anadromous salmon fishery and guano occurrenceStockner, JG eds. Nutrients in salmonid ecosystems: sustaining production and biodiversityAmerican Fisheries SocietyBethesda1731Google Scholar
  31. Nagasaka, A, Nagasaka, Y 2004Effects of salmon-derived nutrients on stream water quality and riparian vegetation in Hokkaido, northern Japan (in Japanese with English summary)Ann Rep Interdisc Res Inst Environ Sci23109117Google Scholar
  32. Nakajima, M, Ito, T 2000Aquatic animal colonization of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses in Hokkaido, northern Japan (in Japanese with English summary)Sci Rep Hokkaido Fish Hatch542331Google Scholar
  33. Nakajima, M, Ito, T 2003Aquatic animal colonization of chum salmon carcasses in Hokkaido, northern JapanAm Fish Soc Symp348997Google Scholar
  34. Nakanishi, Y, Yamamoto, Y, Park, K, Kato, S, Kumazawa, K 1995Estimation and verification of origins of groundwater nitrate by using δ 15N values (in Japanese with English summary)Jpn J Soil Sci Plant Nutr66544551Google Scholar
  35. Ohashi, H 2001PublisherLocation Salicaceae of JapanSci Rep Tohoku Univ Biol40269396Google Scholar
  36. O'Keefe, TC, Edwards, RT 2003Evidence for hyporheic transfer and removal of marine-derived nutrients in a sockeye stream in Southwest AlaskaAm Fish Soc Symp3499107Google Scholar
  37. Pinay, G, O'Keefe, TC, Edwards, RT, Naiman, RJ 2003Potential denitrification activity in the landscape of a western Alaska drainage basinEcosystems6336343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reimchen, TE 2000Some ecological and evolutionary aspects of bear–salmon interactions in coastal British ColumbiaCan J Zool78448457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schindler, DE, Leavitt, PR, Brock, CS, Johnson, SP, Quay, PD 2005Marine-derived nutrients, commercial fisheries, and production of salmon and lake algae in AlaskaEcology8632253231Google Scholar
  40. Stewart, GR 2001What do δ15N signatures tell us about nitrogen relations in natural ecosystems?Unkovich, MPate, JMcNeill, AGibbs, DJ eds. Stable isotope techniques in the study of biological processes and functioning of ecosystemsKluwerDordrecht91101Google Scholar
  41. Takahashi, G, Kuwahara, T, Yamanaka, M 2005Dams in the Shiretoko Peninsula – issues in river management and environmental conservation (in Japanese with English Abstract)Jpn J Conserv Ecol10139140Google Scholar
  42. Wipfli, MS, Hudson, J, Caouette, J 1998Influence of salmon carcasses on stream productivity: response of biofilm and benthic macroinvertebrates in southeastern Alaska, USACan J Fish Aquat Sci5515031511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yanai, S, Kochi, K 2005Effects of salmon carcasses on experimental stream ecosystems in Hokkaido, JapanEcol Res20471480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yoneyama, T, Morita, A, Yamada, H 2002Use of natural abundance of stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur to interpret their dynamics in soils and plants (in Japanese)Jpn J Soil Sci Plant Nutr73331342Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Forest Society and Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akiko Nagasaka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yu Nagasaka
    • 1
  • Kinuko Ito
    • 2
  • Tsutomu Mano
    • 3
  • Masami Yamanaka
    • 4
  • Atushi Katayama
    • 5
  • Yoshikazu Sato
    • 6
  • Andrey L. Grankin
    • 7
  • Andrey I. Zdorikov
    • 7
  • Gennady A. Boronov
    • 8
  1. 1.Hokkaido Forestry Research InstituteBibaiJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Fisheries, Biology and EcologyGraduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  3. 3.Hokkaido Institute of Environmental SciencesSapporoJapan
  4. 4.Shiretoko Nature Foundation (Shiretoko Natural Park Nature Center)ShariJapan
  5. 5.Wildlife Management Office Inc.KobeJapan
  6. 6.Department of Forest Science and ResourcesCollege of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon UniversityFujisawaJapan
  7. 7.Department of Wildlife and HuntingSakhalin StateRussia
  8. 8.Institute of Marine Geology and GeophysicsSakhalin StateRussia

Personalised recommendations