Advertisement

Security threat: a reality or right-wing political discourse phenomenon

  • Marium FatimaEmail author
  • Ghulam Ali Murtaza
  • Shahid Ahmed Afridi
  • Arshi Saleem Hashmi
Original Paper
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

This article studies the potential paradigm shift in Europe linking refugees’ influx with the security phenomenon through the works of intellectuals belonging to Copenhagen and Paris School. The article has been written exclusively in the milieu of the Civil War in Syria which brought migrants/refugees into the international limelight as a threat to security after 2011. The paper initially examines the Political position occupied by right wing and the rightist politicians’ discourse on refugees in Europe. Afterwards the paper discusses discursive phenomenon of securitization in the framework of theory on the premise of the works of different scholars of the field. The last section probes the construction of refugees as a threat to security in Germany as a unique case which underwent securitization and de-securitization. Turkey presents another case study to investigate the security threat posed by the refugees as a reality or misconception in the ambit of the theoretical framework and how the securitization narrative influenced the Turkish policies towards refugees.

Notes

References

  1. Arikan EB (1999) The programme of the Nationalist Action Party: an iron hand in a velvet glove?. Turkey Before and After Atatürk. Frank Cass.122–125Google Scholar
  2. Arman MN (2017) The Syrian refugee crisis and the European Union conditionality. JEAST 1(2):10–20 http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/355692 Google Scholar
  3. Balzacq T (2005) The three faces of securitization: political agency, audience and context. EJIR 11(2):171–201.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1354066105052960. Accessed 22 Nov 2017Google Scholar
  4. Baubock R (2017) Refugee protection and burden-sharing in the European Union. JCMS. 56(1):141–156Google Scholar
  5. Berti B (2015) The Syrian refugee crisis: regional and human security implications. Strategic Assessment 17(4):41–53Google Scholar
  6. Bigo D (2002) Security and immigration: toward a critique of the governmentality of unease. Alternatives 27(1):63–92.  https://doi.org/10.1177/03043754020270S105. Accessed 15 Nov 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braun T (2017) The influence of immigration on european societies: the case of Muslim integration in the United Kingdom. Dissertation, Tallinn University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  8. Canovan M (1981) Populism (1st ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0151730780Google Scholar
  9. Chadwick V (2015) The top 10 wackiest anti-refugee remarks. Politico. www.politico.eu/article/toxic-news-refugees-migrants-eu/. Accessed 18 Apr 2019 ‘CHP, MHP oppose Turkish citizenship for Syrians’, Hurriyet Daily News, July 07, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/chp-mhp-oppose-turkish-citizenship-for-syrians-101341. Accessed 29 Apr 2019
  10. Demirsu I, Muftuler-Bac M (2017) THE Turkish-EU cooperation on the refugee crisis: The Turkish perceptions in the parliamentary debates. Interparliamentary Cooperation in the EU’s External Action-Parliamentary Scrutiny and Diplomacy and Beyond. Working paper no. 7. https://ghum.kuleuven.be/ggs/research/paco/working-papers/pacowp07.pdf. Accessed 3 Apr 2018
  11. Donelli F (2018) Syrian refugees in Turkey: a security perspective. New England Journal of Public Policy 30 (2) Article 7. https://scholarworks.umb.edu/nejpp/vol30/iss2/7. Accessed 26 Apr 2019
  12. Duffy B (2015) Perils of perception. Ipsos Mori, Social Research Institute. https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/2017-07/ipsos-perils-of-perception-charts-2015.pdf. Acccessed November 12 2017
  13. Eatwell R (1999) Conclusion: the ‘end of ideology’. In: Eatwell, Roger and Wright, Anthony (Eds.) Contemporary Political Ideologies. Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 0-8264-5173-X, 9780826451736
  14. Eatwell R, Mudde C (2004) Western democracies and the new extreme right challenge. ISBN 978–0–415-36971-8. Accessed 25 Apr 2019Google Scholar
  15. Fako E (2012) Strategies of desecuritization. Master’s of Arts Thesis., Central European University. www.etd.ceu.hu/2012/fako_edin.pdf. Accessed 2 Dec 2017
  16. Fekete E (2018) Europe’s fault lines: racism and the rise of the right. Verso, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Filip B (2017) The refugee crisis in Europe: unfolding right-wing politics, racism and anti-immigration political parties. Global Research. www.globalresearch.ca/the-refugee-crisis-in-europe-unfolding-right-wing-politics-racism-and-anti-immigration-political-parties/5623846. Accessed 5 Apr 2018
  18. Hampshire J (2015) Europe’s migration crisis. Polit Insight 6(3):8–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hedges C (2009) Empire of Illusion: The End of Literacy and the Triumph of Spectacle. Nation Books 24–66Google Scholar
  20. Husyman J (2002) The European Union and the securitization of migration. JCMS. 38(5):751–777.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00263 Accessed 7 July 2018Google Scholar
  21. Husymans J (1998) The question of the limit: desecuritisation and the aesthetics of horror in political realism. Millennium- J INT ST 27(3):569–589.  https://doi.org/10.1177/03058298980270031301. Accessed 12 Jan 2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Içduygu A, Sert D (2010) Irregular migration at two borders: The Turkish-EU and Mexican-US Cases. Immigration Paper Series. www.researchgate.net/publication/249968868_Irregular_MIgratIon_at_Two_Borders_the_TurkIsh-EU_and_MexIcan-US_Cases. Accessed 26 June 2018
  23. Inankul H (2016) An analysis on the impact of the Syrian refugees on Turkey’s security with the Main subjects of migration and criminal acts. ESJ 12(5):297–312.  https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2016.v12n5p297 Accessed 15 July 2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Juhasz A (2017) Recent changes in refugee-related policies in Hungary. Migration politics and policies in Central Europe. Globsec Policy Institute. www.globsec.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/migration_politics_and_policies_in_central_europe_web.pdf. See more here Political Capital: The special case of Hungary in the European refugee crisis. Available online at http://www.politicalcapital.hu/hireink.php?article_read=1&article_id=324
  25. Karadağ S (2012) Europeanization of migration and asylum policy: a critical analysis of Turkish case. Msc dissertation, London School of Economics And Political ScienceGoogle Scholar
  26. Lehne S, Valasek T (2017) The EU is not out of the danger zone. Carnegie EuropeGoogle Scholar
  27. Leonard S (2009) The creation of FRONTEX and the politics of institutionalization in the EU external Borders policy. JCER 5(3):371–388Google Scholar
  28. Lindvall A (2015) Have refugees become a security problem? A comparative study of securitization In The United Kingdom And Germany. Bachelor Thesis, University of Gothenburg. https://gupea.ub.gu.se/handle/2077/42428. Accessed 27 Dec 2017
  29. Mark P (2016) The EU-Turkey Deal Analysis and Considerations. Jesuit Refugee Service Europe Policy Discussion Paper, JRS Europe, https://jrseurope.org/assets/Publications/File/JRS_Europe_EU_Turkey_Deal_policy_analysis_2016-04-30.pdf. Accessed 2 May 2019
  30. McDonald M (2008) Securitization and the construction of security. EJIR 14(4):563–587. 10.1177%2F1354066108097553. Accessed 18 Nov 2017Google Scholar
  31. McLean L, McMillan A (2008) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 465. ISBN 9780199205165Google Scholar
  32. Müftüler-Baç M (2016) Divergent pathways: Turkey and the European Union, rethinking the dynamics of Turkish-European Union relations. Barbara Budrick Publishers, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oğuz E, Ayla OB (2017) The impact of Syrian refugees on the Turkish economy: regional labour market effects. Soc Sci 6:2–12.  https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Prooijen JW, Krouwel APM, Emmer J (2018) Ideological responses to the EU refugee crisis: the left, the right, and the extremes. SPPS 9(2):143–150Google Scholar
  35. Sliwinski KF (2016) A securitization of immigration policy-the case of European Union. AP Journal of EU Studies 14(1): 25–56. http://www.keusa.or.kr/korean/kor_publication/APJournal/ 2016_No14_1/Eu-14-1-02%20Krzysztof.pdf. Accessed 1 Apr 2018
  36. Tepe S (2005) Turkey’s AKP: a model “Muslim-democratic” party? JHU Press, Baltimore, pp 69–82Google Scholar
  37. Toğral B (2012) Securitization of migration in Europe: critical reflections on Turkish migration practices. Alternatives 11(2):65–67Google Scholar
  38. Tyyska V, Blower J, DeBoer S, Kawai S, Walcott A (2017) The Syrian refugee crisis: a short orientation, RCIS Working Paper No. 2017/2. Ryerson University Centre for immigration and settlementGoogle Scholar
  39. Wodak R (2015) The politics of fear: what right-wing populist discourses mean. Sage, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yüksel S (2014) Securitization of migration: the case of Turkey-EU relations. MJES 22(1):169–187 http://dspace.marmara.edu.tr/handle/11424/4834 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marium Fatima
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ghulam Ali Murtaza
    • 2
  • Shahid Ahmed Afridi
    • 1
  • Arshi Saleem Hashmi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Peace and Conflict StudiesNational Defense UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.School of Oriental and African StudiesLondonUK

Personalised recommendations