Asia Europe Journal

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 129–143 | Cite as

India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir dispute: unpacking the dynamics of a South Asian frozen conflict

  • Sumit Ganguly
  • Michal SmetanaEmail author
  • Sannia Abdullah
  • Ales Karmazin
Original Paper


The Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan remains at the core of one of the most intractable conflicts in modern history. This article provides a plausibility probe into the dynamics of this South Asian rivalry that is conceptually based on the dynamic understanding of “frozen conflicts” introduced in this special issue of Asia Europe Journal. We lay out the key features of the conflict vis-à-vis the redefined notion of frozen conflicts, situating the rivalry in the broader category of unresolved protracted conflicts with a looming threat of violence renewal. In turn, we examine the three transformational dynamics as they operate in this particular case: peaceful thawing, violent thawing, and conflict withering. We conclude that despite the ongoing developments within the conflict dynamics, the possibility of conflict transformation through any of the suggested pathways remains unlikely in the near future.



We would like to thank the reviewers for their constructive comments and recommendations.

Funding information

We acknowledge funding by the Charles University Research Centre programme UNCE/HUM/028 (Peace Research Center Prague/Faculty of Social Sciences) and by the internal research scheme VVZ 57-04 of Metropolitan University Prague.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumit Ganguly
    • 1
  • Michal Smetana
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sannia Abdullah
    • 3
  • Ales Karmazin
    • 4
  1. 1.Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  2. 2.Charles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Center for International Security and CooperationStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  4. 4.Department of Asian StudiesMetropolitan University PraguePragueCzech Republic

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