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Phytothérapie

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 91–103 | Cite as

Regain d’intérêt pour la grenade, un fruit majestueux aux multiples propriétés

  • M. BidriEmail author
  • P. Choay
Matière Médicale
  • 134 Downloads

Résumé

Depuis quelques années, la grenade, fruit consommé depuis des millénaires, connaît un regain d’intérêt sans précédent à la fois auprès des scientifiques et des consommateurs. En effet, ce fruit, en plus de sa grande valeur nutritionnelle, constitue une source importante de minéraux, de vitamines et de polyphénols composés essentiellement de tanins, d’anthocyanes et de flavonoïdes. L’utilisationmédicinale de la grenade est très ancienne, mais ces deux dernières décennies, de nombreux travaux ont été réalisés sur ce fruit, qui tendent à démontrer que les polyphénols de grenade posséderaient des propriétés antioxydantes, anti-inflammatoires, antiprolifératives et antibactériennes intéressantes. De ce fait, la grenade est maintenant proposée comme adjuvant dans la prise en charge de certaines pathologies comme les maladies cardiovasculaires, le diabète et certains cancers, en particulier celui de la prostate. Chez les diabétiques souffrant de maladies coronariennes, les polyphénols pourraient améliorer l’irrigation du myocarde et aider à réduire les dépôts artérioscléreux dans la carotide. Fait intéressant, les polyphénols de la grenade inhibent in vitro et in vivo (xénogreffes chez l’animal) la prolifération de nombreuses lignées tumorales. Chez l’homme, certaines études cliniques tendent à montrer que ces polyphénols pourraient induire un allongement du temps de doublement du taux de PSA chez des patients atteints de cancer de la prostate en récidive biologique, tandis que d’autres études ne semblent pas confirmer cet effet. Ces résultats contradictoires sont probablement liés à l’utilisation d’extraits de grenade (EG) plus ou moins dosés en polyphénols. Des études complémentaires, randomisées et contrôlées sur une large population avec des EG standardisés en polyphénols, sont donc encore nécessaires pour confirmer leur rôle cardioprotecteur, d’une part, et leur effet antiprolifératif, d’autre part, particulièrement dans le cancer de la prostate.

Mots clés

Grenade Polyphénols Punicalagine Acide ellagique Antioxydant Antiprolifératif Cancer de la prostate Cardioprotection 

Recently renewed interest for pomegranate, a majestic fruit with multiple properties

Abstract

Recently, pomegranate, a fruit consumed since thousands of years, has found an unprecedented upsurge of interest among both scientists and consumers. Pomegranate, in addition to its high nutritional value, is an important source of minerals, vitamins, and polyphenolic compounds consisting mainly of tannins, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. The medicinal use of pomegranate is very old, but during the previous two decades, many studies have been conducted on this fruit, which have shown that polyphenols of pomegranate have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antibacterial properties. From these facts, pomegranate is proposed as an adjunct in the treatment of certain diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some cancers particularly that of the prostate. In diabetic patients with coronary heart disease, polyphenols may improve irrigation of the myocardium and help to reduce atherosclerotic deposits in the carotid. Interestingly, polyphenols of pomegranate inhibit the proliferation of many tumour cell lines in vitro as well as in vivo (xenografts of tumour cell in animals). In humans, a few clinical trials have shown that polyphenols of pomegranate increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer, although other studies failed to evidence such a benefit. These contradictory data may probably be related to the use of pomegranate extracts containing different concentrations of polyphenols. As a consequence, additional randomized controlled trials on a large population with standardized pomegranate polyphenols extracts are needed to confirm the cardioprotective role of these compounds, as well as their antiproliferative effect particularly in prostate cancer.

Keywords

Pomegranate Polyphenols Punicalagin Ellagic acid Antioxidant Antiproliferative Prostate cancer Cardioprotection 

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Copyright information

© Lavoisier 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de biologie des urgenceshôpitaux universitaires La Pitié-Salpêtrière–Charles-FoixParis cedex 13France
  2. 2.ParisFrance

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