Advertisement

Phytothérapie

, 4:220 | Cite as

La nigelle cultiv’ée : Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae)

  • K. Ghedira
Article Original Pharmacognosie

Cultivated black cumin: Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae)

Résumé

Les graines deNigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), ou nigelle cultivée, sont largement utilisées en médecine traditionnelle pour le traitement et la prévention de nombreuses maladies. Elles contiennent principalement une huile fixe et une huile essentielle, des protéines, des alcaloïdes et une saponine. Les activités biologiques des graines sont principalement dues à la thymoquinone, composé majoritaire de l’huile essentielle et présent dans l’huile fixe. Différents extraits et autres constituants actifs issus de la graine, notamment l’huile essentielle et la thymoquinone, sont responsables de diverses propriétés pharmacologiques, particulièrement des activités anti-oxydante, anti-inflammatoire, analgésique, antimutagène, antinéoplasique, antihé-patotoxique, antinéphrotoxique, immunostimulante, hypoglycémiante, antiulcéreuse, antimicrobienne et antiparasitaire. Les graines se caractérisent par une faible toxicité. Bien que toutes ces potentialités ne se soient pas encore concrétisées, de nombreux travaux soutiennent l’utilisation possible deN. sativa en thérapeutique.

Abstract

The seeds ofNigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as black seed or black cumin, are widely used in folk medicine for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The seeds contain both fixed and essential oils as well as proteins, alkaloids and saponin. Much of the biological activities of the seeds has been shown to result from thymoquinone, which is the major component of the essential oil and also present in the fixed oil. The pharmacological properties of the seeds’ crude extracts and some of their active constituents-for example, volatile oil and thymoquinone-include anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimutagenic, antineoplastic, antihepatotoxic, antinephrotoxic, respiratory and immunological, hypoglycaemic, antiulcer, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activity. The seeds are characterized by very low toxicity. A large number of studies support the potential use ofN. sativa in therapeutics.

Mots clés

Nigella sativa Graines Thymoquinone Propriétés pharmacologiques Toxicité 

Keywords

Nigella sativa Seeds Thymoquinone Pharmacological actions Toxicity 

Bibliographie

  1. 1.
    Abdel Fatah M, Matsumoto K, Watanake H (2000) Antinociceptive effects ofNigella sativa oil and its major components in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 400: 89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agrawal R, Kharya MD, Shrivastava R (1979) Antimicrobial and anthelmintic activities of the essential oil ofNigella sativa Linn. Indian J Exp Biol 17: 1264–1265Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahmed MS, Honda G, Miki W (1979) Herbs and herbalists in the Middle East. Institute for the study of languages and cultures of Asia and Africa, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akhtar AH, Ahmad KD, Gilani SN,et al. (1996) Antiulcer effects of aqueous extracts ofNigella sativa and Pongamia pinnata in rats. Fitoterapia 38: 195–199Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    AI-Awadi F, Fatania H, Shamte U (1991) The effect of a plant mixture extract on liver gluconeogenesis in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diab Res 18: 163–168Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    AI-Ghamdi MS (2001) The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity ofNigella sativa. J Ethnopharmacol 76: 45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    AI-Hader A, Aqel M, Hasan Z (1993) Hypoglycemic effects of the volatile oil ofNigella sativa seeds. Int J Pharmacog 31: 96–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aljabre SHM, Randhawa MA, Akhtar N,et al. (2005) Antidermatophyte activity of ether extract ofNigella sativa and its active principle, thymoquinone. J Ethnopharmacol 101: 116–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Al-Saleh IA, Billedo G, El-Doush II (2006) Levels of selenium, DL-α-tocopherol, DL-γ-tocopherol, all-trans-retinol, thymoquinone and thymol in different brands ofNigella sativa seeds. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19: 167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ilhan A, Gurel A, Armutcu F,et al. (2005) Antiepileptogenic and antioxidant effects ofNigella sativa oil against pentylene-tetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Neuropharmacology 49: 456–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Atta-ur-Rahman, Malik S, Ahmed S,et al. (1985) Nigellimine-N-oxide a new isoquinoline alkaloid from the seeds ofNigella sativa. Heterocycles 23: 953–955Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Atta-ur-Rahman, Malik S, Cun-heng H,et al. (1985) Isolation and structure determination of nigellicine, a novel alkaloid from the seeds ofNigella sativa. Tetrahedron Lett 23: 2759–2762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Atta-ur-Rahman, Malik S, Hasan SS,et al. (1995) Nigellidine, a new indazole alkaloid from the seedsof Nigella sativa. Tetrahedron Lett 36: 1993–1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Atta-ur-Rahman, Malik S, Zaman K (1992) Nigellimine, a new isoquinoline alkaloid from the seeds ofNigella sativa. J Nat Prod 55: 676–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Badary OA, Nagi MN, AI-Shabanah OA,et al. (1997) Thymoquinone ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rodents and potentiates its antitumor activity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 75:1356–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Badary OA, AI-Shabanah OA, Nagi MN,et al. (1998) Acute and subchronic toxicity of thymoquinone in mice. Drug Develop Res 44: 56–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Badary OA, AI-Shabanah OA, Nagi MN,et al. (1999) Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice by thymoquinone. Eur J Cancer Prev 8: 435–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Badary OA, Gamal AM (2001) Inhibitory effects of thymoquinone against 20-methylcholantherene-induced fibrosarcoma tumorigenesis. Cancer Detec Prev 25: 362–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baser KHC, Honda G, Miki W (1986) Herb drugs and herbalists in Turkey. Institute for the study of languages and cultures of Asia and Africa, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bellakhdar J (1997) La pharmacopée marocaine traditionnelle. Ibis Press, ParisGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bouquet J (1921) Matière médicale indigène de l’Afrique du Nord. Trav. Off. Nat. Matières premières végétales. Notice 8: 1–29Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Burits M, Bucar F (2000) Antioxidant activity ofNigella sativa essential oil. Phytother Res 14: 323–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Canonica L, Jommi G, Scolastico C,et al. (1963) The pharmacologically active principle inNigella sativa.Gazz. Chim Ital 93(11): 1404–1407Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chakravarty N (1993) Inhibition of histamine release from mast cells by nigellone. Ann Allergy 70: 237–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Daba MH, Abdel Rahman MS (1998) Hepatoprotective activity of thymoquinone in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Lett 95: 23–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ducros AH (1930) Essai sur le droguier populaire arabe de l’Inspectorat des pharmacies du Caire. Mém Inst d’Egypte 15: 166Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    El-Abhar HS, Abdullah DM, Saleh S (2003) Gastroprotective activity ofNigella sativa oil and its constituent, thymoquinone, against gastric mucosal injury induced by ischaemia reperfusion in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 84: 251–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    EI-Dakhakhny M (1963) Studies on the chemical constituents of EgyptianNigella sativa L. seeds. The essential oil. Planta Med 11: 465–470Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    EI-Dakhakhny M, Barakat M, Abd EI-Halim,et al. (2000) Effect ofNigella sativa oil on gastric secretion and ethanol induced ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 72: 299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    EI-Dakhakhny M, Mady NI, Halim MA (2000)Nigella sativa L. protects against induced hepatotoxicity and improves serum lipid profile in rats. Arzneimittelforsch 50: 832–836Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    EI-Dakhakhny M, Mady NI, Lembert N,et al. (2002) The hypoglycemic effect ofNigella sativa oil is mediated by extrapancreatic actions. Planta Med 65: 465–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    EI-Dakhakhny M, Mady NI, Lembert N,et al. (2002)Nigella sativa oil, nigellone and derived thymoquinone inhibit synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase products in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rats. J Ethnopharmacol 81(2): 161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    El Daly ES (1998) Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E,Crocus sativus andNigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats. J Pharm Bel 53: 87–95Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    El-Kadi A, Kandil O (1987) The black seed (Nigella sativa) and immunity: its effect on human Tcell subset. Fed Proc 46: 1222Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    El-Kadi A, Kandil O, Tabuni AM (1987)Nigella sativa cell-mediated immunity. Arch AIDS Res 1: 232–233Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    EI-Kamali HH, Ahmed AH, Mohammed AS,et al. (1998) Antibacterial properties of essential oils fromNigella sativa seeds,Cymbopogon citatus leaves andPulicaria undulata aerial parts. Fitoterapia 34: 77–78Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    El-Mahmoudy A, Shimizu Y, Shiina T,et al. (2005) Successful abrogation by thymoquinone against induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin via nitric oxide inhibitory mechanism. Int Immunopharmacol 5(1): 195–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    EI-Tahir KE, Ashour MM, AI-Harbi MM (1993) The respiratory effects of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in guinea pigs: elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action. Gen Pharmacol 24: 1115–1122Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    EI-Tahir KE, Ashour MM, AI-Harbi MM (1993) The cardio-vascular actions of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: elucidation of the mechanism of action. Gen Pharmacol 24: 1123–1131Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    EI-Zawahrawy B, Fatma AI, Zahraa AH (1998) Effect ofNigella sativa on blood level and structure of liver and pancreas in adult male albino rats. AI-Azhar Med J 27: 479–483Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Enomoto S, Asano R, Lwahori Y,et al. (2001) Hematological studies on black cumin oil from the seeds ofNigella sativa L. Biol Pharm Bull 24: 307–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ghosheh OA, Houdi AA, Crooks PA (1999) High performance liquid Chromatographic analysis of the pharmacologically active quinones and related compounds in the oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa L.). J Pharm Biomed Anal 19(5): 757–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goreja WG (2003) Black Seed: Nature’s Miracle Remedy. New York, NY Amazing Herbs PressGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Jafarabadi H (2004) Black cumin seed essential oil, as a potent analgesic and antiinflamrnatory drug. Phytother Res 18(3): 195–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hanafy MS, Hatem ME (1991) Studies on the antimicrobial activity ofNigella sativa seed (black cumin). J Ethnopharmacol 34(2-3): 275–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Haq A, Abdullatif M, Lobo PI,et al. (1995)Nigella sativa: effect on human lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytic activity. Immunopharmacol 30: 147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Haq A, Lobo P, AI-Tufail M,et al. (1999) Immunomodulatory effect ofNigella sativa proteins by ion exchange chromatography. Int J Immunopharmacol 21: 283–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hawsawi ZA, Ali BA, Bamosa AO (2001) Effect ofNigella sativa (Black seed) and thymoquinone on blood glucose in albino rats. Ann Saudi Med 21(3-4): 242–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Houghton PJ, Zarka R, de las Heras B,et al. (1995) Fixed oil ofNigella sativa and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation. Planta Med 61: 33–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Khanna T, Zaidi FA, Dandiya PC (1993) CNS and analgesic studies onNigella sativa. Fitoterapia 64: 407–410Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kumara SS, Huât BT (2001) Extraction, isolation and characterization of antitumor principle, alpha-hederin, from the seeds ofNigella sativa. Planta Med 67: 29–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lautenbacher LM (1997) Schwarzkümmelöl. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 137: 68–69Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mahmoud MR, EI-Abhar HS, Saieh S (2002) The effects ofNigella sativa oil against the liver damage induced bySchistosoma mansonii mice. J Ethnopharmacol 79: 1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Maire A, Savelli A (1955) In Salah et le Tidikelt oriental, Etude historique, géographique et médicale. Arch Inst Pasteur Alger 33(4): 367–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marozzi FJ, Koclalski AB, Malone MH (1970) Studies on the antihistaminic effects of thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and quercitin. Drug Res 20: 1574–1577Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Meral I, Yener Z, Kahraman T,et al. (2001) Effect ofNigella sativa on glucose concentration, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant defence system and liver damage in experimentally-induced diabetic rabbits. J Vet Med A 48: 593–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Merfort I, Wray V, Barakat HH,et al. (1997) Flavonoid triglycℰides from seeds ofNigella sativa. Phytochemistry 46: 359–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Morsi NM (2000) Antimicrobial effect of crude extracts ofNigella sativa on multiple antibiotics-resistant bacteria. Acta Microbiol Pol 49: 63–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mutabagani A, EI-Mahdi SM (1997) A study of the anti-inflammatory activity ofNigella sativa L. and thymoquinone in rats. Saudi Pharmacol J 5: 110–113Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nadkarni AK (1976) IndianMateria Medica. Popular Parkishan: Bombay, India, p 854Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nagi MM, Alam K, Badary OA (1999) Thymoquinone protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice via an antioxidant mechanism. Biochem Mol Biol Int 47: 143–159Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nair SC, Salomi MJ, Panikkar B,et al. (1991) Modulatory effects ofCrocus sativus andNigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice. I Ethnopharmacol 31: 16–20Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Passager P, Barbançon S (1956) Taghit (Sahara oranais): étude historique, géographique et médicale. Arch Inst Pasteur Alger 34(3): 404–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Passager P, Dorey R (1958) El Golea (Sahara algérois): étude historique, géographique et médicale. Arch Inst Pasteur Alger 36(1): 74–152Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Reboul E (1953) Le Gourara: étude historique, géographique et médicale. Arch Inst Pasteur Alger 31(2): 164–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Salomi NJ, Nair SC, Jayawardhanan KK,et al. (1992) Anti-tumor principles fromNigella sativa and saffron (Crocus sativus) on chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Nutr Cancer 16: 67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sayed MD (1980) Traditional medicine in health care. J Ethnopharmacol 2: 19–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Schleicher P, Saleh M (1998) Black seed cumin: the magical Egyptian herb for allergies, asthma, and immune disorders. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, p 90Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sijelmassi A (1991) Les plantes médicinales du Maroc. Le Fennec, CasablancaGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Swamy SMK, Tan BKH (2000) Cytotoxic and immunopotentiating effects of ethanolic extract ofNigella sativa L. seeds. J Ethnopharmacol 70: 1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Swamy SMK, Benny TKH (2001) Extraction, isolation and characterisation of antitumor principle, α-hederin, from the seeds ofNigella sativa. Planta Med 67: 29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Swamy SM, Huat BT (2003) Intracellular glutathione depletion and reactive oxygen species generation are important in alpha-hederin-induced apoptosis of P388 cells. Mol Cell Biochem 245(1-2): 127–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wichtl M, Anton R (2003) Plantes thérapeutiques. Tec & Doc Lavoisier/EMI, ParisGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zaoui A, Cherrah Y, Lacaille-Dubois MA,et al. (2000) Diuretic and hypotensive effects ofNigella sativa in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Thérapie 55: 379–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zaoui A, Cherrah Y, Alaoui K,et al. (2002) Effects ofNigella sativa fixed oil on blood homeostasis in rat. J Ethnopharmacol 79: 23–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zaoui A, Cherrah Y, Mahassine N,et al. (2002) Acute and chronic toxicity ofNigella sativa fixed oil. Phytomedicine 9: 69–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de pharmacognosiefaculté de pharmacie de MonastirTunisie

Personalised recommendations