Lipidomics characterization of the alterations of Trichoderma brevicompactum membrane glycerophospholipids during the fermentation phase
The biological membrane lipid composition has been demonstrated to greatly influence the secretion of secondary metabolites. This study was conducted to investigate the periodical alterations of whole cellular lipids and their associations with secondary products in Trichoderma brevicompactum. An electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry-based lipidomics strategy was used to acquire the metabolic profiles of membrane lipids during fermentation. Univariate analyses showed that most fungi glycerophospholipids were significantly altered at the early phase compared with the late phase. In addition, correlation analyses showed high correlations between phosphatidylcholine alterations and fermentation duration. In addition, the fermentation-associated alterations of phosphatidylcholines were found to be in accordance with the degrees of unsaturation of acyl-chains. Harzianum A reached a maximum on the 12th day, while trichodermin and 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one showed the highest abundances on the 9th day, both of which were inclined to correlate with the alterations of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines, respectively. These findings demonstrated that the alterations of the membrane lipid species in Trichoderma spp. were associated with the fermentation phases and might influence the secretion of specific secondary products, which may be useful in studying the optimization of secondary products in Trichoderma spp.
KeywordsTrichoderma brevicompactum Metabolic profile Lipidomics Secondary product Glycerophospholipid
This study was funded by the Science and Technology Project of Qiqihar City (SFGG-201543) and the Doctoral Scientific Fund Project (QY2015B-03). We sincerely express our appreciation to the Forest Department in Northeast Forest University for donating the Trichoderma brevicompactum strain to this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Alexandre H, Rousseaux I, Charpentier C (1994) Relationship between ethanol tolerance, lipid composition and plasma membrane fluidity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kloeckera apiculata. FEMS Microbiol Immunol 124:17–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb07255.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Benítez T, Rincón AM, Limón MC et al (2005) Biocontrol mechanism of Trichoderma strains. Int Microbiol 7(4):249–260Google Scholar
- 18.Lattif AA, Mukherjee PK, Chandra J, Roth MR, Welti R, Rouabhia M, Ghannoum MA (2011) Lipidomics of Candida albicans biofilms reveals phase-dependent production of phospholipid molecular classes and role for lipid rafts in biofilm formation. Microbiology 157:3232–3242. https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.051086-0 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.Tarus PK, Lang’Atthoruwa CC, Wanyonyi AW et al (2003) Bioactive metabolites from Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma longibrachiatum. Bull Chem Soc Ethiop 17(2):185–190Google Scholar
- 34.Xia J, Jones AD, Lau MW et al (2011) Comparative lipidomic profiling of xylose-metabolizing S. cerevisiae and its parental strain in different media reveals correlations between membrane lipids and fermentation capacity. Biotechnol Bioeng 108:12–21. https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.22910 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 38.Yin GL, Wang WM, Sha S et al (2010) Inhibition and control effects of the ethyl acetate extract of Trichoderma harzianum fermented broth against Botrytis cinerea. Afr J Microbiol Res 4(15):1647–1653Google Scholar