Expanding lysine industry: industrial biomanufacturing of lysine and its derivatives

  • Jie Cheng
  • Peng Chen
  • Andong Song
  • Dan WangEmail author
  • Qinhong WangEmail author
Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology - Review


l-Lysine is widely used as a nutrition supplement in feed, food, and beverage industries as well as a chemical intermediate. At present, great efforts are made to further decrease the cost of lysine to make it more competitive in the markets. Furthermore, lysine also shows potential as a feedstock to produce other high-value chemicals for active pharmaceutical ingredients, drugs, or materials. In this review, the current biomanufacturing of lysine is first presented. Second, the production of novel derivatives from lysine is discussed. Some chemicals like l-pipecolic acid, cadaverine, and 5-aminovalerate already have been obtained at a lab scale. Others like 6-aminocaproic acid, valerolactam, and caprolactam could be produced through a biological and chemical coupling pathway or be synthesized by a hypothetical pathway. This review demonstrates an active and expansive lysine industry, and these green biomanufacturing strategies could also be applied to enhance the competitiveness of other amino acid industry.


Lysine Metabolic engineering Synthetic biology Strain improvement δ-Valerolactam 





l-Pipecolic acid


Lysine cyclodeaminase


l-Lysine decarboxylase


Glucose dehydrogenase


Lysine racemase


6-Aminocaproic acid





This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21206175 and 315014682), the Industrial Biotechnology Program of Tianjin Municipal Science and Technology Commission (14ZCZDSY00066), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Project No. 106112017CDJXFLX0014), and the Henan Provincial Science and technology Open cooperation projects (162106000014). This work is also partially supported by Open Funding Project of the State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, Shanghai, China.


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Copyright information

© Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Chemical Process for Clean Energy and Resource UtilizationChongqing UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Systems Microbial Biotechnology, Tianjin Institute of Industrial BiotechnologyChinese Academy of SciencesTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Enzyme Engineering of Agricultural Microbiology, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Life SciencesHenan Agricultural UniversityZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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