Rational design of engineered microbial cell surface multi-enzyme co-display system for sustainable NADH regeneration from low-cost biomass
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As an important cofactor, NADH is essential for most redox reactions and biofuel cells. However, supply of exogenous NADH is challenged, due to the low production efficiency and high cost of NADH regeneration system, as well as low stability of NADH. Here, we constructed a novel cell surface multi-enzyme co-display system with ratio- and space-controllable manner as exogenous NADH regeneration system for the sustainable NADH production from low-cost biomass. Dockerin-fused glucoamylase (GA) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) were expressed and assembled on the engineered bacterial surfaces, which displayed protein scaffolds with various combinations of different cohesins. When the ratio of GA and GDH was 3:1, the NADH production rate of the whole-cell biocatalyst reached the highest level using starch as substrate, which was three times higher than that of mixture of free enzymes, indicating that the highly ordered spatial organization of enzymes would promote reactions, due to the ratio of enzymes and proximity effect. To confirm performance of the established NADH regeneration system, the highly efficient synthesis of l-lactic acid (l-LA) was conducted by the system and the yield of l-LA (16 g/L) was twice higher than that of the mixture of free enzymes. The multi-enzyme co-display system showed good stability in the cyclic utilization. In conclusion, the novel sustainable NADH system would provide a cost-effective strategy to regenerate cofactor from low-cost biomass.
KeywordsMicrobial cell surface display technology Multi-enzyme co-display system Cofactor regeneration system Low-cost biomass Lactic acid
The authors are grateful for helpful discussion of Prof. Yingang Feng in Qingdao institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21705087) and Distinguished Scholars of Qingdao Agricultural University (No. 6631117015).
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